# MA120 Basic Concepts of Statistics

## for S1T 2006

Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

 Course MA 120 Basic Concepts of Statistics Semester S1T 2006 DL Faculty Cundiff, Kathy L. Daytime Phone 775-269-8298 E-Mail kcundiff@park.edu Semester Dates 01/09/06 - 03/05/06 Credit Hours 3

Textbook:
Elementary Statistics - 6th Ed by Neil A. Weiss, Addison Wesley Longman ISBN: 0-201-77130-6.  This package includes student access to MathXL and MyMathLab.  These tools include applets that will allow you to complete homework without buying extra statistical software.

PLEASE NOTE: You will not be allowed to use a programmable, graphing, or statistical calculator on your final exam, nor will you be able to use a computer, so you will need to purchase or borrow a simple scientific calculator for the final exam.  I suggest you use the same calculator throughout the course.  Then you will be familar with it and will avoid having to learn how to use a new calculator at final exam time.

Textbooks can be purchased though the MBS bookstore

Course Description:
A development of certain basic concepts in probability and statistics that are pertinent to most disciplines.  Topics include:  probability models, parameters, statistics and sampling procedures, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression.  3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
The facilitator's educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, quizzes, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings. The facilitator will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues and contradictions.

Learning Outcomes:
Core Learning Outcomes

1. Compute descriptive statistics for raw data as well as grouped data
2. Determine appropriate features of a frequency distribution
3. Apply Chebyshev's Theorem
4. Distinguish between and provide relevant descriptions of a sample and a population
5. Apply the rules of combinatorics
6. Differentiate between classical and frequency approaches to probability
7. Apply set-theoretic ideas to events
8. Apply basic rules of probability
9. Apply the concepts of specific discrete random variables and probability distributions
10. Compute probabilities of a normal distribution

Instructor Learning Outcomes
1. determine the mean of a population
2. calculate confidence intervals for the population mean
3. conduct hypothesis testing regarding the population mean
4. test for differences between means
5. use linear regression for analysis of data sets with one independent variable
Core Assessment:

Description of MA 120 Core Assessment

One problem with multiple parts for each numbered item, except for item #3, which contains four separate problems.

1. Compute the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for a sample of 8 to 12 data.

2. Compute the mean and standard deviation of a grouped frequency distribution with 4 classes.

3. Compute the probability of four problems from among these kinds or combinations thereof:

a. the probability of an event based upon a two-dimensional table;

b. the probability of an event that involves using the addition rule;

c. the probability of an event that involves conditional probability;

d. the probability of an event that involves the use of independence of events;

e. the probability of an event based upon permutations and/or combinations;

f. the probability of an event using the multiplication rule; or

g. the probability of an event found by finding the probability of the complementary event.

4. Compute probabilities associated with a binomial random variable associated with a practical situation.

5. Compute probabilities associated with either a non-standard normal probability distribution.

6. Compute and interpret a confidence interval for a mean and/ or for a proportion.

Weekly homework assignments, discussion thread postings, and a proctored final exam.

Reading assignments:  Students will be expected to read the assigned chapters in the textbook, the lectures and articles displayed for each week, and assigned material on the Internet.  The Online Conference Discussions and Homework Assignments and Proctored Examination assume you have read the assigned readings.

Complete the Student Tutorial Competency Quiz with at least 90% accuracy = 10 points
Introduction posting = possible 2 points
Posting of a thoughtful response to at least one classmate's Introduction = possible 2 points
Posting of a weekly Discussion question answer = possible 5 points each week
Posting of a weekly thoughtful reply to a classmate's Discussion question answer = possible 2 points each week
Weekly homework assignments = possible 10 points each week
Final Exam = possible 65 points

A = 189 - 210
B = 168 - 188
C = 147 - 167
D = 126 - 146
F = 0 - 125

Note:  The Final Exam will test you on all the material covered in the first seven weeks of the course.  It will be an OPEN BOOK and OPEN NOTES exam.  It must be taken in person (requiring a photo identification) before Friday of the 8th week of instruction at one of the Park University campuses around the country.  If one is not available in your area, I will approve an alternative location/proctor if the Guidelines for selecting an acceptable proctor, found at the Park University Website, are followed.  It will be your responsibility to insure that your approved and accepted proctor form reaches me by the end of the sixth week.  Five BONUS points will be earned by all who have an APPROVED AND ACCEPTED proctor form to me before the end of the 3rd week of the term.  (All alternative location proctors must be approved by me and may take longer for me to approve, so you should begin immediately if you wish to earn these points.)  Five Penalty points will be assessed on the Final Exam if your proctor form is not submitted to me before the end of the 6th week of the term.  You will receive a confirmation on the approved proctor form at the same time I receive my copy.  So, you do not need to send me a copy of the one you receive, and if you have not received a copy, I have not either!  Failure to take a proctored final exam will result in an automatic "F" grade for the course.

Homework:  Practice homework problems will be assigned weekly (even for the last week of the term).  You must submit the assignment to me via the weekly Dropbox basket.  (Remember, if you have an emergency where you cannot submit your homework via the course Dropbox, you may email the completed assignment to me as an attachment.

IMPORTANT NOTICE: I will allow you to seek assistance in completing the homework, IF YOU INCLUDE A WRITTEN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT listing who helped you, and exactly what you learned from that person.  Use your "tutor" wisely.  Please keep in mind that you will need to know the covered concepts for the final exam, when you will not have assistance.

Your homework will be assessed on whether you completed the assignment, submitted it to me on time, and if you completed it correctly.  If the correct answer is not present, I will want to see evidence that the error was simply mathematical in nature, and not a lack of understanding of the material.  (In other words, show your work!  It could earn you at least partial credit.)

I will publish the Weekly Homework Answer Key 12 hours after the assignment deadline.  Use this key as a re-learning tool of concepts you may need more help on.  You may also use it as a review area for your final exam.

Under no circumstances are you to post your homework answers to the conference threads.  Doing so will earn you a 10 point penalty!  Send your homework answers directly to me.

Late Submission of Course Materials:
Assignments are expected to be completed by set deadlines.  A 24 hour extension is provided for thread postings, but will be assessed with a 50% penalty on earned points.  A late weekly homework submission will be assessed, with a 50% penalty on earned points, only if submitted within 12 hours of the end of week deadline, AND this is only available ONE TIME PER STUDENT PER TERM.  After the answers to the weekly homework have been published, 12 hours after the close of the week, no weekly homework assignments will be accepted.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
Policy #1:  Submission of Work.

A class week is defined as the period of time between Monday 12:00 am MST and Sunday at 11:59 PM MST. The first week begins the first day of the term. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed and successfully submitted by the posted due date.
Create a back up file of every piece of work you submit for grading. This will ensure that a computer glitch or a glitch in cyberspace won't erase your efforts.
When files are sent as attachments to Dropbox messages or to an email, they should be in either Microsoft Word, Microsoft Works, RTF, txt, or PDF file formats.  WORDPERFECT and some scanner files (like .max) are not acceptable for this course.  If you have a question about a specific file type, ASK FIRST.  IF I CANNOT OPEN THE FILE TO SCORE YOUR WORK, YOU WILL NOT EARN POINTS!
We will be using the Dropbox tool for weekly homework assignments.  You will attach your file to the Dropbox message.  If you have difficulties, please contact the Help Desk by clicking on the Help button at the top of the screen.  In case of an emergency where you cannot submit your assignment to the Dropbox, you should send it to me as an attachment via email.

Policy #2:  Ground Rules for Online Communication & Participation.

General email: Students should use email for private messages to me and other students. When sending me an email, you must identify yourself fully by course number, section letters, and last name in the SUBJECT LINE of your email: MA120 DL, your last name.  PLEASE DO THIS ON EVERY EMAIL THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE TERM.
Online threaded discussions: are public messages and all writings in this area will be viewable by the entire class.
Online Instructor Response Policy:  Online Instructors are required to check email frequently and respond to course-related questions within 24-48 hours.
Observation of "Netiquette": All your Online communications need to be composed with fairness, honesty and tact.  Spelling and grammar are very important in an Online course.  What you put into an Online course reflects on your level of professionalism.  Here are a couple of Online references that discuss writing Online http://goto.intwg.com/ and netiquette http://www.albion.com/netiquette/corerules.html.  PLEASE PROOFREAD AND USE THE SPELLCHECK TOOL FOR THREAD POSTINGS.

Policy #3:  What to do if you experience technical problems or have questions about the Online classroom.

If you experience computer difficulties (need help downloading a browser or plug-in, you need help logging into the course, or if you experience any errors or problems while in your Online course, click on the HELP button in your Online Classroom, then click on the helpdesk menu item, and then fill out the form or call the helpdesk for assistance.  (I HIGHLY SUGGEST YOU JOT DOWN THE PHONE NUMBERS OF ECOLLEGE AND PARK HELPDESK FROM THE WEBSITES NOW. In case you cannot enter the course or Park websites later you will have the numbers to call.)
Computer literacy:  Students are expected to have frequent access to a personal computer with a modem and web browser, access to the Internet, and an e-mail account.  Computer literacy is expected (e.g. setting up files, familiarity with browsing and downloading Internet files, etc.).

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
Welcome to MA 120: Basic Concepts of Statistics!

Statistics is a word that strikes terror into the heart of college students across the United States.  The most common mathematics requirements for college programs are the courses of Statistics and College Algebra.  Algebra is particularly feared because it is usually a GRADUATION requirement at US colleges.

We often hear of figures being referred to as statistics:  "9 out of 10 dentists surveyed chose brand X" is a common form.  We have also often heard the assertion of Benjamin Disraeli, Victorian era British Prime Minister: "There are lies.  There are damned lies.  Then there are statistics."  These words beg the question:  What are statistics?

For the answer to this burning question and more...enter the course.  Hopefully, you will find that you are not as easily intimidated by numbers and the word "statistics" by the end of the course.

Have a healthy and productive term!

During Week 1 we'll gain a better understanding of the purpose of the textbook and this course.  We'll cover some of the basic terminology used in statistics and gain insight into the need for statistics.   We'll further see several ways how statistics may be applied and misapplied.  We'll discuss the importance of tables and charts and their use in displaying and understanding numeric data.  We will also learn how mistakes in constructing graphs improperly causes data to be misrepresented.  Our online discussions will help you become familiar with the online environment, learn what we hope to achieve from this course, understand my general guidelines and expectations, and assess your interest in the the study of statistics.

During Week 2 we'll exam basic calculations used in descriptive statistics including: measures of center, sample mean, and sample standard deviation.  We will also discuss descriptive measures for populations, including the use of samples.  We will also learn what probabilities are and learn some of the basic rules of probability.

During Week 3 we will learn about the normal distribution, areas under the standard normal curve, and working with normally distributed variables.

During Week 4 we will discuss sampling concepts to include sampling error, the need for sampling distributions and learn how to apply the sampling distribution of the sampling mean.

During Week 5 we begin an examination of inferential statistics starting with a discussion of confidence intervals for one population mean.  We'll discuss how to estimate the population mean when we know the standard deviation and when it is not known.  We will also have a discussion on the margin of error.

During Week 6 we will start to examine the basics of hypothesis testing by using one-sample procedures for the hypothesis test of the population mean.

During Week 7 we will make comparison inferences about the means of populations using two sample procedures.

During Week 8 we will conclude our examination of topics in statistics by discussing the purpose of regression and correlation analysis.  First, we'll examine some introductory terms, then focus on simple linear regression analysis and simple linear correlation analysis. During this final week of the course you will also complete the proctored Final Exam covering the concepts learned in the first seven weeks.

Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-87
Definitions

Academic dishonesty includes committing or the attempt to commit cheating, plagiarism, falsifying academic records, and other acts intentionally designed to provide unfair advantage to the students.

Cheating includes, but is not limited to, intentionally giving or receiving unauthorized aid or notes on examinations, papers, laboratory reports, exercises, projects, or class assignments which are intended to be individually completed.  Cheating also includes the unauthorized copying of tests or any other deceit or fraud related to the student's academic conduct.

Other acts that constitute academic dishonesty include:

Stealing, manipulating, or interfering with an academic work of another student or faculty member.

Collusion with other students on work to be completed by one student.

Lying to or deceiving a faculty member.

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-87
Procedure

In the event of alleged academic dishonesty, an Academic Dishonesty Incident Report will be submitted to an Online Academic Director who will then investigate the charge.  Students who engage in academic dishonesty are subject to a range of disciplinary actions, from a failing grade on the assignment or activity in question to expulsion from Park University.

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "WH".
4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: An attendance report of "P" (present) will be recorded for students who have logged in to the Online classroom at least once during each week of the term. Recording of attendance is not equivalent to participation. Participation grades will be assigned by each instructor according to the criteria in the Grading Policy section of the syllabus.

Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 89
Students are expected to spend a substantial amount of time online and offline each week including but not limited to responding to the weekly threads, sending/receiving Email, reading and viewing online lectures, and conducting research over the World Wide Web.  A rule of thumb is that you should spend approximately 4-5 hours per week online reviewing course content and engaging in group work and discussion and an additional 4-6 hours per week on readings, preparing assignments, or completing papers or examinations.  Expecting to spend less time than that will only result in disappointment.

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all learners that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to learners concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the American with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding learners with disabilities and, to the extent of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

I began teaching and tutoring for Park University at the Parkville campus in January 1997.  Until July 31, 2003, I was also the Testing Center Coordinator (Yes, one of those "official" proctors!).  I watched the Park University Online Program grow from a handful of instructors and students to its present day size.  As an online instructor I have been required to take several online instructional courses, and have also worked with the Distance Learning staff on several occasions.  So you might say I have experienced the online program from the viewpoint of a student, a proctor, an instructor, and in a limited way, an administrator!  During the continual growth period there have been numerous changes.  I helped to bring about one or two improvements.  Please read more about me in my introduction posting and the link to People At Park.

I pledge to do my best as your instructor.  Will you do the same as my student?  If so, let's work together and hopefully we will all learn something new.

Thanks,

Kathy Cundiff

Rubric

 Competency Exceeds Expectation (3) Meets Expectation (2) Does Not Meet Expectation (1) No Evidence (0) Critical Thinking SynthesisOutcomes Can compute and interpret a confidence interval for a sample mean for small and large samples, and for a proportion with 100% accuracy. Can compute and interpret a confidence interval for a sample mean for small and large samples, and for a proportion with at least 80% accuracy. Can compute and interpret a confidence interval for a sample mean for small and large samples, and for a proportion with less than 80%  accuracy. Makes no attempt to compute or interpret a confidence interval. AnalysisOutcomes Can apply the normal distribution, Central limit theorem, and binomial distribution to practical problems with 100% accuracy. Can apply the normal distribution, Central limit theorem, and binomial distribution to practical problems with at least 80% accuracy. Can apply the normal distribution, Central limit theorem, and binomial distribution to practical problems with less than 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to apply the normal distribution, Central Limit Theorem, or binomial distribution. EvaluationOutcomes Can perform and interpret a hypothesis test with 100% accuracy. Can perform and interpret a hypothesis test with at least 80% accuracy. Can perform and interpret a hypothesis test with less than 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to perform a test of hypothesis. Content TerminologyOutcomes Can explain event, simple event, mutually exclusive events, independent events, discrete random variable, continuous random variable, sample,  and population with 100% accuracy. Can explain event, simple event, mutually exclusive events, independent events, discrete random variable, continuous random variable, sample,  and population with at least 80% accuracy. Can explain event, simple event, mutually exclusive events, independent events, discrete random variable, continuous random variable, sample,  and population with less than 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to explain any of the terms listed. ConceptsOutcomes Can explain mean, median, mode, standard deviation, simple probability, and measures of location with 100% accuracy. Can explain mean, median, mode, standard deviation, simple probability, and measures of location with at least 80% accuracy. Can explain mean, median, mode, standard deviation, simple probability, and measures of location with less than 80%  accuracy. Makes no attempt to define any concept. ApplicationOutcomes Compute probabilities using addition multiplication, and complement rules and conditional probabilities. Compute statistical quantities for raw and grouped data. Compute probabilities using combinatorics, discrete random variables, and continuous random variables. All must be done with 100% accuracy. Compute probabilities using addition multiplication, and complement rules and conditional probabilities. Compute statistical quantities for raw and grouped data. Compute probabilities using combinatorics, discrete random variables, and continuous random variables. All must be done with at least 80% accuracy. Compute probabilities using addition multiplication, and complement rules and conditional probabilities. Compute statistical quantities for raw and grouped data. Compute probabilities using combinatorics, discrete random variables, and continuous random variables. All are done with less than 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to compute any of the probabilities or statistics listed. Technical Skills Whole ArtifactOutcomes Can apply the concepts of probability and statistics to real-world problems in other disciplines with 100 % accuracy. Can apply the concepts of probability and statistics to real-world problems in other disciplines with at least 80 % accuracy. Can apply the concepts of probability and statistics to real-world problems in other disciplines with less than 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to apply the concepts to real-world problems. ComponentOutcomes Can use a calculator or other computing device to compute statistics with 100% accuracy. Can use a calculator or other computing device to compute statistics with at least 80% accuracy. Can use a calculator or other computing device to compute statistics with less 80% accuracy. Makes no attempt to use any computing device to compute statistics. M/LL CoursesOutcomes