SO315 Minority Group Relations

for S1D 2006

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Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.


SO 315 Minority Group Relations


S1D 2006 DA


Vaughan, Margaret A.M.


Adjunct Professor of Sociology


Ph.D. American Indian Studies, 2004 University of Arizona
M.A. American Indian Studies 1998 University of Arizona
B.A. Anthropology 1994 University of Maine

Office Hours

no office hours unless prior appointment is made

Daytime Phone

Please leave a message with  Park Office: 520-748-8266

Other Phone

Please leave a message with Park Office: 520-748-8266


Semester Dates

01/16/2006 to 03/12/2006

Class Days


Class Time

4:45 - 7:25 PM



Credit Hours


The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race, Sex and Gender, Social Class, and Sexual Orientation, 3/e 2000 authored by
Karen E. Rosenblum, George Mason University
Toni-Michelle C. Travis, George Mason University

Additional course readings/materials will be distributed in class, available on the world-wide web, or available on document sharing on the class e-companion website.

Textbooks can be purchased though the MBS bookstore

Additional Resources:
Alland, A., Jr. (2002). Race in mind: Race, IQ, and other racisms. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Amott, T., & Matthaei, J. (1996). Race, gender, and work: A multicultural economic history of women in the United States (revised ed.). Boston, MA: South End Press.

Baldwin, N. (2001). Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate. New York: PublicAffairs.

Bayer, R. H., (Ed.).(2003).  Race and ethnicity in America: A concise history. New York: Columbia University Press.

Berger, A. A. (1995). Cultural criticism: A primer of key concepts. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Oxford, MA: Blackwell.

Browser, B. P., & Hunt, R. G. (Eds). (1981), Impacts of White racism on White Americans.
Beverly Hills & London: Sage Publications.

Black, E. (2003). War against the weak: Eugenics and America's campaign to create a master race. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.

Buenker, J. D., & Ratner, L. A. (2005). Multiculturalism in the United States: A comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity (revised and expanded ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Burguière, A., & Grew, R. (Eds.). (2001). The construction of minorities: Cases for comparison across time and around the world. Ann Arbor: MI: The University of Michigan Press.

Coates, R. D. (Eds.). (2004). Race and ethnicity: Across time, space, and discipline. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

Conrad, C. A., Whitehead, P. M., & Stewart, J. (Eds.). (2005). African Americans in the U.S. economy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Corcos, A. F. (1997). The myth of human races. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Corker, M., & French, S. (1999). Disability discourse. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Cornell, S., & Hartmann, D. (1998). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.

Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (1998). The Latino condition: A critical reader.  New York & London:  New York University Press.

Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (2000). Critical race theory: The cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Deming, A. H., & Savoy, L. E. (2002). The colors of nature: Culture, identity, and the natural world. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed editions.

Desmond, J. C. (1999). Staging tourism: Bodies on display from Waikiki to sea world. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

DuMas, F. (2003). Funny in Farsi: A memoir of growing up Iranian in America. New York:   Random House.

Frederickson, G. M. (2002). Racism: A short history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Goldberger, N. R., & Veroff, J. B. (1995). The culture and psychology reader. New York: New York University Press.

Gordon, A. F., & Newfield, C. (1996). Mapping multiculturalism. Minneapolis & London: University of Minnesota Press.

Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. NY: Norton.

Grabbe, H-J.  (Ed.). (2003). Colonial encounters: Essays in Early American history and culture. American Studies-A Mongraph Series, 109. Germany: Universitätsverlag WINTER Heidelberg.

Graves, J. L., Jr. (2004). The race myth: Why we pretend race exists in America. New York: Dutton.

Harmon, A. (1998). Indians in the making: Ethnic relations and Indian identities around Puget Sound.  Berkeley, Ca:  University of California Press.

hooks, b. (1989). Talking back: Thinking feminist, thinking black. Boston, MA:  South End Press.

Huhndorf, S. M. (2001). Going native: Indians in the American cultural imagination. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press.

Jacoby, K. (2001). Crimes against nature: Squatters, poachers, thieves, and the hidden history of American conservation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jewell, K. Sue (1993). From mammy to Miss America and beyond: Cultural images and the shaping of U.S. policy. New York: Routledge.

Jones, J. (1998). American work: Four centuries of Black and White labor. New York & London:  W. W. Norton & Company.

Katkin, W. F., Landsman, N., & Tyree, A. (1998). Beyond pluralism: The conception of groups and group identities in America. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Kroeger, B. (2003). Passing: When people can't be who they are. New York: PublicAffairs

Markovitz, J. (2004). Legacies of lynching: Racial violence and memory. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.

Martinot, S. (2003).  The rule of racialization: Class, identity, governance. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Nabakov, P., ed. (1991). Native American testimony: A chronicle of Indian-White relations from Prophecy to the Present. 1492-1992. New York: Penguin Books.

Nebelkopf, E., & Phillips, M., (Eds.). (2004)Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Noël. L. (1994). Intolerance: A general survey (A. Bennett, Trans.). Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Orbe, M. P. (1998). Constructing Co-cultural theory: An explication of culture, power, and communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Peña, D. G. (1998). Chicano culture, ecology, politics: Subversive Kin. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

Pestanna, C. G., & Salinger, S. V. (Eds.). (1999). Inequality in Early America. Hanover & London: Dartmouth College.

Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1990). Immigrant America: A portrait.  Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Prasad, P. (1997). The organizational melting pot: Dilemmas of workplace diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Rank, M. R. (2005). One nation: Underprivileged: Why American poverty affects us all. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

Rochlin, J. M. (1997). Race and class on campus: Conversations with Ricardo's Daughter. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.  

Roediger, D. R. (1991). The wages of whiteness: Race and the making of the American working class. London & New York: Verso.

Roediger, D. R. (2005). Working toward Whiteness: How America's immigrants became White The strange journey from Ellis Island to the suburbs. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Root, M. P. P. (Ed.). (1996). The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Rothenberg, P.S. (2001). Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study (5th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers.

Sansone, L. (2003). Blackness without ethnicity: Constructing race in Brazil. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schuck, P. H. (2003).  Diversity in America: Keeping government at a safe distance.  Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Shipler, D. K. (2005). The working poor: Invisible in America. New York: Vintage Books.

Stedman, R. W. (1982). Shadows of the Indian: Stereotypes in American Culture. Norman & London: University of Oklahoma.

Steinhorn, L., & Diggs-Bown, B. (2000). By the color of our skin: The illusion of integration and the reality of race. New York: Plume.

Stephens, T. M. (1999), Dictionary of Latin American racial and ethnic terminology (2nd ed.). Gainsesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Stephens, T. M. (2003).  A game of mirrors: The changing face of ethno-racial constructs and language in the Americas. Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.

Sterling, D. (Ed.). (1998). Speak out in thunder tones: Letters and othe writings by Black Northerners, 1787-1865. New York: De Capo Press.

Temple-Raston, D. (2002). A death in Texas: A story of race, murder, and a small town's struggle for redemption.  New York: Henry Holt and Company.

See, L. (1995). On Gold Mountain: The one-hundred-year odyssey of my Chinese-American family. New York: Vintage Books.

Stokes, C., Melendez, T., Rhodes-Reed, G.(Eds.). (2001). Race in 21st century America. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Takaki, R.(Ed.). (1994). From different shores: Perspectives on race and ethnicity in America.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Takaki, R. (1998). Strangers from a different shore: A history of Asian Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Tucker, W. H. (1994). The science and politics of racial research. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2003). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Winters, L. I., & DeBose, H. L. (2003). New faces in a changing America: Multiracial identity in the 21st century.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Wood, P. (2003). Diversity: The invention of a concept. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books.  

Woodward, C. V. (1966). The strange career of Jim Crow (2nd ed.). London: Oxford University Press.

Zellner, W. W. (2001). Extraordinary groups: An examination of unconventional lifestyles. New York: Worth Publishers.

Course Description:
An examination of the patterns and causes of prejudice and discrimination.  Surveys the history and current status of groups in American society which have been subjected to discrimination based on race, ethnicity, sex or religion.  3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
The university instructor is responsible for class content, maintaining the foci of the class, and ensuring the representation of a diversity of viewpoints.  I view my role to be a facilitator, sensitive to how everything from seating styles to choice of reading materials affects the classroom atmosphere.  I use a combination of methods in the classroom for different student learning styles, and I utilize collaborative learning strategies.  I believe that critical thinking skills are crucial to student success.  It is also important to guide students toward becoming “expert learners” (possessing knowledge of how to learn).  Among other sources, I find first-person accounts useful for teaching ethnic studies because these accounts humanize events, ideas, and issues.  From my viewpoint, teaching is a collaborative and scholarly endeavor.

  Instructor Learning Outcomes

  1. Define “minority” using the sociological definition.
  2. Define “master status” using the sociological definition and name the intersecting master statuses that people experience and use to identify others and self: race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, sexual orientation/preference, (dis)ability, and religion.
  3. Differentiate between the essentialist and social constructionist philosophies.
  4. Compare and contrast “institutional racism,” “scientific racism,” “individual racism,” and “new racism.”
  5. Explain why “race” as a biological entity is a controversial concept and how it is being replaced by the paradigm of clines.
  6. Illustrate how the U.S. Census and legal opinions reflected historically-contingent understandings of ethnic/racial identity.
  7. Describe how multiracial and multiethnic individuals' identities are negotiated in the United States.
  8. Describe the phenomenon of passing and why it occurs.
  9. Recognize stereotypes used to depict certain ethnic/minority groups and the purposes such typecasting serves.
  10. Define “ethnicity,”  “panethnicity,” “assimilation,” and “acculturation” and explain multiple ways “ethnicities” are expressed.
  11. Define ethnogenesis and name an ethnic group that emerged in the United States.
  12. Describe language diversity and language dialects in the United States.
  13. Examine the many discourses/viewpoints on affirmative action and “color-blind” policies in the United States.
  14. Identify discrimination/racism/sexism/ableism/anti-Semitism/religious intolerance/prejudice in many social settings of the past and present.  Give concrete examples of discrimination/racism/ sexism/ableism/anti-Semitism/religious intolerance/ prejudice and specific remedies.
  15. Describe how ideas of Whiteness historically have influenced the U.S. (such as immigration policy and experiences) and how sociologists theorize about Whiteness.
  16. State the immigration patterns that have shaped/are shaping the United States.
  17. Describe the catalysts of interethnic conflict in the United States.
  18. Describe a program put in place to eliminate minority health disparities in the United States.
  19. State the three main models of disability.
  20. Describe the meaning of disability identity, and describe an example of how persons with disabilities have formed groups to negotiate the terms of their own identities.
  21. Describe religious diversity and sources of religious intolerance and conflict in the United States.
  22. Differentiate between sex and gender and sexual harassment and gender harassment.
  23. Explain how socioeconomic class may be viewed as a master status in the United States and the sociological theories that explain class interactions.
  24. Describe how minority groups, since the time of Early America, resisted oppression and victimhood through exercising agency.
  25. Explain theories of prejudice and discrimination.
Core Assessment:

Class Assessment:
Assessments of this course will be done through completion of in-class collaborative group exercises, case studies, regular analytic and responsive writing assignments, a short paper explaining a key term in minority group relations, research and an oral and written presentation on an organization that works to remedy inequality in the United States, a midterm exam and cumulative final exam. These course assessments will test the conceptual and applied understandings gained from lectures, readings, inside- and outside-class assignments, and collaborative group work.  As the class progresses, the syllabus may be subject to change by the instructor.

Assignments and Points

Midterm Examination            150 points

Final Examination                  150 points

Learning Journal                      60 points

Organization Paper                  150 points

Organization Class Presentation 20 points

Key Word Paper                          75 points

Total Points                                 605 points

“A” grades 545-605 points

“B” grades 484-544 points

“C” grades 423-483 points

“D” grades 362-422 points

Late Submission of Course Materials:
All assignments must be passed in by the due date, or I will subtract five points for each day the assignment is late, unless other arrangements have been made BEFORE the due date.  The journal entries must be passed in by the Wednesday of the following week or the student will not earn credit for the entry.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
-  Students are to come prepared to class with the assigned readings completed, with an open mind to different viewpoints, and with a willingness to participate in class discussions.
-Students are not required to agree with the authors, other students, or the instructor.  Students are required to understand course content, carefully read and listen, and communicate disagreement with thoughtful and reasoned arguments in a respectful manner.
-Never insult or verbally disparage other students or the instructor.  Thoughtfully disagree by attempting to begin your point by supporting or building on a point of the previous participant.
-Experiences shared during class should not be divulged to anyone outside of the class.  

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
* Indicates that the reading is not in the textbook and will be distributed in class or may be accessed through the worldwide web.  

Unit One: Defining Difference
Syllabus overview and class guidelines
Assignments and learning journal guidelines distributed
Foundational key concepts:  master statuses, minority, race, ethnicity, difference, ethnocentrism, culture, gender, stigma
The complex intersections of identity
Essentialism and Social Constructionist philosophies

The concepts of “race” and racism
Theories of prejudice and discrimination
U.S. Census categories and legal and community definitions of race and ethnicity
Institutional, scientific, individual, and new racism
Movie Clip: Race: The Power of an Illusion PBS

The Meaning of Difference, “Framework Essay Constructing Categories of Difference” pp. 2-37
Reading 1 “Who is Black? One Nation's Definition” by F. James Davis pp. 38-46
Personal account: “A Wonderful Opportunity” by R.M.A. p. 46
Reading 2 “Race Censuses, and Citizenship” by Melissa Nobles pp. 47-55
Reading 3 “The Evolution of Identity” by The Washington Post pp. 56-59
Reading 5 “Federal Indian Identification Policy” by M. A. Jaimes pp. 60-73
Personal account: “Shopping with a Friend” by R. Ambrose p. 72
Personal account: “I Thought my Race was Invisible” by S. H. Pereira p. 91

The concept of “race” continued
The concept of ethnicity, panethnicity, and multiethnicity
Ethnicity theories
Theories of Whiteness
Expressions of ethnic identity
Multiethnic identities

Reading 6: La Raza and the Melting Pot by C. A. Fernández pp. 73-81
Reading 7: “Asian American Panethnicity” by Y. L. Espiritu pp. 81-91
Reading 19: “What Are You?” by J. N. Miyamoto p. 203
Reading 24 “The Accidental Asian” by E. Liu pp. 222-232
Reading 25: “Diversity and Its Discontents” by A. Madrid pp. 233-240
Reading 29: “The Cost of Whiteness” by Thandeka pp. 254-260
Reading 43: “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness” by G. Lipsitz pp. 398-409

Unit 2 Experiencing Difference
Brief history of racialized and ethnic groups in the U.S.
Indigenous Peoples
Voluntary Immigrants
Involuntary Immigrants
Movie clip: Farmingville PBS
Reading 25 “The Day of Remembrance Ceremony” by L. Minatoya pp. 232-233
Reading 44 “Strangers among Us: How Latino  immigration is Transforming America” by R. Suro pp. 410-419
*Runaway slave advertisements from 18th-century Virginina newspapers:
*Funny in Farsi excerpts pp. 8-12, 62-63,116-121 copyright 2003 by Firoozeh Dumas


Brief history of racialized and ethnic groups, continued
Resisting and coping with racism and ethnocentrism in the U.S.
The perception gap
Ethnic conflict and cooperation

Framework Essay pp. 176-202
Reading 23: “Please Ask me, Who, not ‘What' I am” by J. Lite pp. 221-222
Reading 36 “At a Slaughter House, Some Things Never Die” by C. LeDuff pp. 290-300
Personal account: “Going Home” by K. Haynes p. 239
*“White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” by P. M. McIntosh
* "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow: An Autobiographical Sketch” by Richard Wright
* “The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man” by James Weldon Johnson, 1912. Posted on Document Sharing /Excerpted from website

Language policy and practice
Racist and sexist language
Language dialects in the U.S.
Movie Clip: Do You Speak American? PBS

Reading 27 “Our Classroom Barrios” by P. Welsh pp. 240-243
Reading 28 “Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication” by L. M. Barna pp. 243-253
Reading 55 “Racism in the English Language” by R. B. Moore pp. 502-509
Reading 56 “Gender Stereotyping in the English Language” by L. Richardson pp. 509-514
Reading 54  “Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States” by R. Schmidt pp. 492-501

Gender as a social construction
Gender and hate groups
Sexual Harassment/Inequality in school/workplace

*Website (skim) “The Chilly Climate: How Men and Women are Treated Differently in Classrooms and at Work”
Reading 12 “Similarity and Difference: The Sociology of Gender Distinctions” by C. F. Epstein pp. 117-125
Reading 45 “Sex, Race, and Ethnic Inequality in the United States Work Places” by B. F. Reskin and I. Padavic pp. 420-436
Personal account: “Just Something You Did as a Man” by F. Hernandez p. 470
*“Ah, Ya Throw Like a Girl” by M. Messner pp. 46-48


Disability models
Disability identity
Americans with Disability Act
Movie: Freaks

Reading 21 “ ‘Can You See the Rainbow?':  The Roots of Denial” by S. French pp. 208-214
Personal account: “ I am Legally Blind” by B. O. Gordon p. 215
Reading 22 “How Long Must We Wait?' by B. O. Gordon & M. Oliver pp. 216-221

Socioeconomic class levels determined by property, power, and prestige
Elite, Pluralist, and Marxist theories of socioeconomic class
Movie clip: People Like Us

Reading 13: “Reading America: Preliminary Notes on Class and Culture by S. B. Ortner pp. 127-134
Reading 14: “Why is Class Important?” by M. Zweig pp. 135-143
Reading 15: Getting Ahead: Economic and Social Mobility in America” by D. P. McMurrer pp. 144-152
Reading 32 “Of Race and Risk” by R. J. Williams pp. 271-273
Reading 34: “All Soul's Night” M. P. MacDonald pp. 276-280
Reading 35 “A Question of Class” by D. Allison pp. 280-288
Personal account: “Just Like my Mama Said” by A. McNeill p. 420
Personal account: “The Moment of Visibility” by R. B. Pascarell p. 289

Religious minorities in the United States

Unit 3 Racialized and ethnic minority social inequality, equality, and remedies
Statistics on social inequality in the U.S.
Health disparities in the United States
Dialogues on integration, affirmative action and “color-blind” discourses

Framework Essay pp. 308-324
Reading 20 “Oppression” by M. Frye pp. 204-208
Reading 46 “The Health of Black Folk: Disease, Class, and Ideology in Science” pp. 436-441
Reading 30 “Driving While Black” by J. Lamberth pp. 260-263
Reading 31 “A Day in the Life of Two Americas” by L. Steinhorn & B. Diggs-Brown pp. 263-271
Personal account: “Play Some Rolling Stones” by M. D. Stockenberg p. 271
Reading 37 “Why are Droves of Unqualified, Unprepared kids Getting into our Top Colleges? Because Their Dads are Alumni” by J. Larew pp. 300-305

Affirmative action
“Color blindness”
Natural law language
Legal Issues

Reading 38 “Twelve Key Supreme Court Cases” pp. 325-351
Reading 39 “Group Rights” by D. Igraham pp. 351-366
Reading 41 “Social Movements and the Politics of Difference” by C. Z. Kerchis & I. M. Young pp. 371-385
Reading 42 “Facing History, Facing Ourselves” by E. K. Yamamoto pp. 385-398

Stereotypes and representations of minority groups
Movie: Jim Crow's Museum

Reading 49 Orientals by R. G. Lee pp. 455-463
Personal Account: “Let Me Work for It” by I. Nguyen p. 464
Reading 50 “Women-Becoming Men: Voices of Kickbutt Culture” by B. DeMott pp. 465-471
Reading 51 “Toward a Poetics of the Disabled Body” by  R. Garland-Thomson pp. 471-481
Reading 52 “Both Sides Come Out Fighting: The Argument Culture and the Press” by D. Tannen pp. 481-487
Reading 53 “What Americans Don't Know about Indians” by S. Mander pp. 487-492
* Website: Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia:
*Website (skim) The Gender Ads Project



Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-87

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-87

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "WH".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2005-2006 Undergraduate Catalog Page 89

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all learners that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to learners concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the American with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding learners with disabilities and, to the extent of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: .

Learning Journal

Organization paper and presentation

Key Word Paper


This material is copyright and can not be reused without author permission.