CH400 Special Topics in Chemistry

for SP 2008

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CH 400 Introduction to HPLC and its Applications


SP 2008 HOZ


Chernovitz, Patricia

Office Location


Office Hours


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Semester Dates

14 January -09 May 2008

Class Days


Class Time



“B” or better in CH329

Credit Hours



HPLC, A Practical User’s Guide, Marvin McMaster, Wiley, 2007

(ISBN 0-471-75401-3) and selected handouts

Additional Resources:
Linda Hall Library

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
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Course Description:
A seminar devoted to selected topics in modern chemistry of interest to students requiring more depth in the field. The course may involve laboratory work. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Variable credits: 1-4 hours.
An introduction to the theory and application of HPLC.

Educational Philosophy:
The instructor’s educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, quizzes, problems, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings along with the lab experience. The instructor will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues, and contradictions. The goal is to transfer adequate and sufficient amount of knowledge to all students at the appropriate level. In doing so making sure 1) students understand what is being conveyed; 2) prepare students for the next level of education; 3) develop the understanding of study such that they adapt the process of thinking rather than memorize facts and principles; 4) develop practical skills and techniques to work confidently in the laboratories; 5) demonstrate how chemistry is part of our daily lives; 6) to use alternative and diverse methods of teaching to keep the student motivated and interested during the course of study during the semester and hopefully the rest of their lives.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Discuss and examine a topic that is not normally offered as a formal class in chemistry.
  2. Demonstrate a degree of competency via readings, discussions, and/or experimentation in the area of chemistry in which the course is offered.
  3. Research the appropriate journals to write professionally in the area.
  4. Master the instrumentation and laboratory skills required for the subject level.

  Instructor Learning Outcomes
  1. • Explain the basics of a HPLC system
  2. • Explain the advantages and disadvantage of HPLC
  3. see handout
Core Assessment:
Papers, homework, reports, presentations, proficiency of lab work

Class Assessment:

Your final grade will be based on one paper, chapter summaries, lab reports, and lab work.

CORE ASSESSMENT: Major paper (20% of grade)


Grading Plan

Your earned final grade is bases on you performance on two papers, chapter summaries, and homework.

Paper                                                    250 points                                               A             910-1010 Total points

Chapter summaries (16x15pts)           240                                                          B               810-909      (“)

Lab reports    (6x70)                            420                                                           C               710-808      (“)

Lab note book                                       50                                                           D               640-709      (“)

Lab work                                                50                                                            F                <640          (“)

Total Points                                          1010                                                       

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

Course Organization

You are to read the chapters and write a summery on what you read. The minimum is one page double spaced typed (1 page single spaced written) for each 10 pages of text. 

Write college level papers.

Write up lab reports as described below and keep a professional lab notebook.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

Chemistry 400
Literature Review Paper – 250 points


                Examples of topics for the term paper are listed below. If you prefer to write the term paper on different subjects (related to the course, of course), you should consult with the instructor for approval. Please inform the instructor about your selection as early as possible. An outline of the paper (one page) with at least three references and the copies of the abstract for research articles, or copies of relevant pages for books is due on 30 March 2008. The final version of the paper is due 30 April 2008.

                The format of the paper can be decided by the student. However, it should include the following aspects:

·         Significance of the problem

·         Principle of environmental chemodynamics (e.g., mechanisms, governing equations / reactions, predicting models, etc.)

·         Applications to the fate and transport of specific environmental contaminants

·         Weakness in the current understanding of the problem

·         Future directions in understanding and/or modeling of the problem

The paper should be about 20 pages (double space, font 12, 1 inch margins), including upto 5 figures and/or tables. (These are not counted as pages. If embedded in the text, they should be of normal size – just large enough to read, not large enough to take up an enormous amount of space.  Eight to ten references (preferably later than 1998) should be adequate. In order to obtain necessary information, you should make a full use out of our library systems. Consult with a librarian for guidance. Linda Hall is down the road. 

Topics covered

Basics of HPLC and other means of separation

Selecting an HPLC system

Running the Chromatograph

Separating Models

Column Preparation

Column Aging, Diagnosis, and Healing

Partition Chromatography Modifications

“Nonpartition” Chromatography

Hardware Specifics

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  3. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  4. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  5. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  6. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  7. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: .

Additional Information:


You must keep an elaborate and highly organized account of each lab exercise in your notebook. Organization of your notebook: (1) Leave a few pages at the beginning for a table of contents (by experiment), a list of commonly used tables, and a list of commonly used figures, and appendices. (2) Neatness is important, but you must write in procedures as you plan them and enter data as you collect it (not on note book paper or napkins for later transfer to your official record). (3) Record every detail in your notebook for future reference. Some items that may not be immediately evident, but should be included, are the type, model number, serial number of equipment (serial number only if more than one piece of the equipment is available), type of glassware used in dilutions, standard dilutions, and brand name and lot number of all chemicals used. (4) No skipped pages are allowed in official (legally defensible) notebooks without proper procedures. (5) Each page must be signed at the bottom (by you) and dated at the end of that day. If half pages are left empty, a single line must be drawn though the blank section, noted that it was intentionally left blank, and initialed by you. (In the real world, normally your supervisor and a QA/QC person would have to review and initial each page at the end of the day. Since there are a number of you in class, I’ll randomly pick one of you from time to time to review your notebook.) (6) All entries must be made with a ball point pin (not the alcohol-based, water soluble pens that are more commonly available). If you make a mistake, draw a single line though the mistake, and write in the correction. Do not obliterate a number that you think is in error as you may find that you actually needed that number. (7) Remember that the goal of this entire process is to produce a document that you, or one of your peers, can pick up (even years in the future) and exactly reproduce your procedure and hopefully your results. (8) Everything that you do in the lab should be recorded in your lab notebook as you do it, including lengthy procedures and calculations as you do them.

Formal lab reports will not be required for all labs. All information required is to be in your lab notebook. The instructor receives the carbon copy. Experiments and procedures will vary from lab to lab, but a general outline for the reports follows:

Introduction, Purpose, or Objective of Lab: a concise but descriptive statement of the what you planned to do. (This can be in present or past tense.)

Theory: I suggest that you start off with a solid description of how the instrument works (theory).

Experimental: everything that you do in the lab, including but not limited to equipment used, date and time of day, reference materials, manuals, or documentable procedures used, detailed procedures that you performed for dilutions, standard preparations, equipment set-up, tables showing solution preparation or dilutions, figures showing any apparatus used, notes on reagents (stock number, possible age of reagent, odd colors, etc.), and any other relevant observations. (Excessive-compulsive behavior (a.k.a. anal) is a good thing.)

Results: data that you collected in the lab and any relevant observations. These do not have to be typed, you may use the carbon copy or the original, but they must be neat and orderly. When calibration curves are used you must use the spreadsheet you developed to analyze the data and obtain all estimates of s for the slope (m), the y-intercept (b), and your sample concentration (sc). Students who perform a propagation of uncertainty calculation will be looked upon very favorably (I strongly suggest at least one calculation when appropriate).

Discussion: Carefully evaluate the data; thoroughly discuss it, and what it means. Considerable thought should go into this section. Also include possible sources of errors.

Conclusions: Summarize what you have already said in your conclusion statements above. Present your results in tabular form (typed, if possible). 

(Remember, do not use personal pronouns (I, we, etc.) in your text.)

Suggestions: I would appreciate a final section that is not included in scientific reports. Please give me suggestions on how to make the lab better (more interesting, not easier).

References: Include any references that you used (text, procedures, research, interpretation, etc.)

Include the answers to any questions asked in the lab.

Laboratory Notebook Guidelines*


Using a Laboratory Notebook to record ideas, inventions, experimentation records, observations and all work details is a vital part of any laboratory process. Careful attention to how you keep your Laboratory Notebook can have a positive impact on the patent outcome of a pending discovery or invention.

Following are some overall recommendations to help you keep more efficient and accurate Laboratory Notebook entries. Remember, however, that these are simply a suggested set of guidelines. Only your attorney can supply the exact guidelines she would like you to follow to satisfy specific legal requirements. That is why we recommend that you consult your legal counsel.

Recording Data

Your Laboratory Notebook is a vital record of your work whether it is for patent purposes, legal records or documenting drug research under FDA guidelines. The Laboratory Notebook can help you prove:

a.                   Exact details and dates of conception

b.       Details and dates of reduction to practice

c.       Diligence in reducing your invention to practice

d.       Details regarding the structure and operation of your invention

e.       Experimentation observations and results

f.        A chronological record of your work

g.       Other work details

Follow a few simple rules of thumb

1.       Always record entries legibly, neatly and in permanent ink.

2.       Immediately enter into your notebook and date all original concepts, data and observations, using separate headings to differentiate each.

3.       Record all concepts, results, references and other information in a systematic and orderly manner. (Language, charts and numbering systems should be maintained consistently throughout.)

4.       It is acceptable to make your entries brief. Always, however, include enough details for someone else to successfully duplicate the work you have recorded.

5.       Label all figures and calculations.

6.       Never, under any circumstances, remove pages from your notebook.

Remember to treat your Laboratory Notebook as a legal document: It records the chronological history of your activities. The following guidelines should help you maintain the consistent and accurate entries needed for future legal purposes.

1.       Start entries at the top of the first page, and always make successive, dated entries, working your way to the bottom of the last page.

2.       After completing a page, sign it before continuing to the next page.

3.       Make sure that you record the date of each entry clearly and unambiguously.

4.       Never let anyone other than yourself write in your Notebook (excluding witness signatures, discussed later).

5.       Never leave blank spaces, and never erase or remove material you have added. Simply draw lines through any blank spaces at the same time you are making your entries.

6.       Do not erase errors. Just draw a single line through any erroneous entry, then add your initials. Enter the correct entry nearby.

7.       You can supplement your entries with supporting material (e.g., test-result printouts and other documentation). But you must permanently affix the material onto a page in its proper chronological location.

8.       Never rely solely on any supplemental attachment. Always include your own entry describing the attachment and add any conclusions that you might draw from its substance.

9.       Occasionally, secondary sources might be too large or inappropriate to attach directly to your notebook. In this case, you can add all secondary sources to an ancillary record maintained precisely for this purpose. However, always remember to write a description of these secondary sources, clearly and unambiguously, in your notebook.

Documenting Patent Activities

A primary purpose of a Laboratory Notebook is the support of documenting work that may be patentable. To support patent activities, it is necessary to provide clear, concise, chronological entries with specific dates. To rely on these dates, you must have at least one non-inventor corroborate that the events actually happened and that he or she understood your invention by signing and dating the "Disclosed to and Understood by" signature blocks.

Your Laboratory Notebook should help you document and prove:

1.       Conception Date--The date that you knew your invention would solve the problem.

2.       Date of reduction to practice--The moment that you made a working embodiment of your invention.

3.       Diligence in reducing your invention to practice--Diligence refers to your intent and conscious effort to make a working embodiment. You are not required to rush, or even to take the most efficient development strategy. But your Notebook must include details relating to your diligent activities. These are dates and facts that show what activities you have conducted to reduce the invention to practice, and when such activities were conducted. Since you may still be diligent despite periods of not working on reducing your invention to practice, always remember to provide reasonable excuses for these periods of inactivity by supplying facts relating to why there was no activity during the period in question. (e.g., unavailability of test conditions or equipment).

4.       How to make and use your invention--provide documentation details sufficient to teach a colleague how to make and use your invention.

5.       The best mode of practicing your invention--document the best way to practice your invention.

A non-inventor colleague should corroborate each of these events/facts by signing the "Disclosed to and Understood by" on the relevant pages.


This material is protected by copyright and can not be reused without author permission.

Last Updated:1/11/2008 5:44:13 PM