GO 130 Astronomy
S1F 2007 HE
Espinal, Jack L.
Bachelor of Science in ChemistryMaster of Science in Management
Fort Myer, Virginia
703 607 7864
703 534 7484
8 January – 11March 2007
5:00 - 10:00 PM
Michael. (2001). Astronomy: The
Evolving Universe Ninth Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore
Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore
Dinah L. Astronomy: A Self Teaching
Guide. John Wiley and Sons.Sagan,
Carl. Billions and Billions.
Carl. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection. Cambridge University
Guy and Davis, Dan M. Turn Left at Orion. Cambridge
Kenneth C. Don't Know Much about the
Universe. Harper Collins.
McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development. The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email email@example.com or call 800-927-3024Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Educational Philosophy: The instructor's educational philosophy based on
student interactions using discussions, readings, lab experiments,
observations, quizzes, examinations, video, internet-mail exchange and
writings. The instructor will engage
each learner in the lively exploration of Astronomy and the scientific method,
discussions of readings, oral reports/presentations; field trips; videos, and
other media that may be deemed appropriate and available. Collaborative learning techniques will be
used to analyze and solve problems in small groups. This course presents basic
principles of Astronomy.
Learning Outcomes: Core Learning Outcomes
Quizzes and Video Viewing Guides are given only during class. There are no make-ups permitted if you miss
them in class.
five of the six quizzes of your choice will count toward the course grade.
must have at least a passing grade for each of the above areas to receive a
passing grade for the course.
Presentations must be made on the date scheduled to receive full credit
Reading & Problem
Quizzes (6 count 5)
Video Viewing Guides
Research Project /
Smithsonian Field Trip
Below 60 or 3
Late Submission of Course Materials:
If an assignment is due on a
night that the student is not present, it is the student's responsibility to
get the assignment to the instructor on the due date. Assignments will not be
accepted after three dates of the due date without prior approval from the
instructor. Video Tapes and DVDs show in
class cannot be made-up.
Classroom Rules of Conduct:
attendance is important. Class
participation is expected and will form a part of the final grade. Students are
expected to come to all classes and be on time. Roll will be checked each class
meeting. Classes missed for legitimate reasons, such as illness, temporary
duty, are excusable; however, the student must make up the missed work by completing class exercise sheets and attending alternate
activities. See the course web page for details. (a partial failing grade for
class participation will be assessed for late chapter assignments or un-excused
absences). Quizzes, announced or
unannounced cannot be made-up.
Videotapes shown in class and associated written class work cannot be
made up. The course web page -
- contains electronic copies of many of the exercises and practice sets used in
class. Browse the page to see what is
Prepare for Class Session Topic
Astronomy, Chapters 1,
2 & 3
2, 3, 6, 8 Ch2 10-12 Ch3 1, 6, 9, 10
Historical Astronomy Naked Eye Observation
Stick In Ground Ex
Astronomy, Chapters 4
1, 5, 10, 15 Ch5 3, 5, 10, 12,
Astrophysics and Telescopes
Moon Observation Ex Quiz
Chapter 6 & 7
Ch6 3, 5 ,8, 9 Ch7
1, 2, 6
Telescopes & the
Cosmos, Einstein's Relativity
Chapter 8 & 9
Ch8 2, 4, 9 Ch9
Chapter 10 & 11
1, 2, 4 Ch11 1-2
Jovian Planets and Evolution
of the Solar System
Chapter 12 & 13
3, 4, 9 Ch13 1, 3, 10
The Sun and the Stars
Chapter 14 & 15
2, 10, 14 Ch15 1, 4, 6, 8
The lives of the Stars
Smithsonian Field Trip
(No class on Thursday
09 March 2007)
Chapter 16 & 17
1, 4-6 Ch17 1, 7, 12, 14
Star Death and Galaxies
Academic Honesty:Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University 2006-2007 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-89
Plagiarism:Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2006-2007 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87
Attendance Policy:Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.
Park University 2006-2007 Undergraduate Catalog Page 89-90
Disability Guidelines:Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .
Session One - Central
The motions of astronomical objects you can see by eye
follow distinctive patterns and cycles in the sky over both short and long
periods of time. These repeated motions suggest an underlying design to the
Scientific models of the cosmos can explain and predict
the motions of celestial bodies, especially those of the planets. Early models
of the cosmos were centered on the earth.•
A heliocentric model of the cosmos was reinvented
during the 16th century in Europe, but this
break with the geocentric tradition required new physical laws and a revolution
of the cosmological views of the time.
Session One - Learning
1. Describe the seasonal
positions of the sun—at sunrise, noon,
and sunset—relative to the horizon from a mid-northern or mid-southern
2. Describe the motions of the
sun and the moon, as seen from the earth, relative to the stars of the zodiac.
3. Describe the motions of the
planets, as seen from the earth, relative to the sun and the stars of the
zodiac, with special attention to retrograde motions.
4. Describe the astronomical
conditions necessary for the occurrence of a total solar eclipse and a total
5. Argue, from naked eye
observations and simple geometry, an order of the sun, moon, and planets from
6. Make use of angular measure to
find positions of celestial objects relative to the horizon and relative to one
7. Describe and explain the
essential aspects of a scientific model.
8. Evaluate the essential assets
of Ptolemy's geocentric model that led to its wide, long-term acceptance; as
part of this appraisal, be able to construct a simplified version of the model.
9. List the assumptions and
arguments that Copernicus used to support his model and refute the Ptolemaic
10. Explain why Copernicus
disliked Ptolemy's use of non-uniform motion and how this bias influenced the
development of his heliocentric model.
11. Describe how Copernican ideas
influenced the astronomical work of Kepler.
12. Describe the important
geometric properties of ellipses and apply these to planetary orbits.
13. Compare and contrast the
Copernican model and the Keplerian one in terms of physics, simplicity,
geometry, and prediction.
State Kepler's three laws of
planetary motion and apply them to appropriate astronomical situations.
Two - Central Concepts
Newton's laws of motion and gravitation explain, predict, and
unify the motions of the bodies in the solar system. These laws are universal
and apply to objects outside of the solar system.•
light, and this light carries physical information about the sun, stars, and
other celestial objects that emit it. Light comes in discrete units that are
emitted and absorbed by atoms.•
our perception of the cosmos by revealing faint objects and a wide range of the
electromagnetic spectrum. New observations impel the development of new models
and often the demise of old ones.
Two - Learning Outcomes
important telescopic discoveries and their impact on the controversy over the
Copernican and Ptolemaic models.
difference between speed and velocity and between accelerated and unaccelerated
motion, giving everyday and astronomical examples.
Cite Newton's three laws of
motion, describe each in simple terms, provide concrete examples, and apply
them to astronomical and everyday cases.
Contrast Newton's concept of natural
motion to that of Aristotle, especially with regard to celestial motions.
Describe Newton's Law of
Gravitation in simple physical terms, and apply this law to the concept of
describe the concept of centripetal force and acceleration, and use it in the
moon - apple test to support Newton's
Law of Gravitation.
Contrast Newton's astronomy and
cosmology with those of Copernicus and Kepler.
differences in the appearance of continuous, absorption, and emission spectra
as seen through a spectroscope.
rules to relate the three basic spectral types to the physical conditions of
the electromagnetic spectrum with examples from each major region.
Use the energy
level diagram of a hydrogen atom to explain how the Balmer series is produced,
both as emission and absorption lines.
concept of the conservation of energy and apply it to ordinary and
and explain the three major types of spectra in graphical form.
Outline the main
functions of a telescope (light gathering power, resolution, and magnifying
power); relate each to specific optical properties of a telescope's design and
sketch those relationships in graphical form.
contrast a telescope's light gathering power, resolution, and magnifying power,
and discuss the limitations of ground-based telescopes.
contrast reflecting and refracting telescopes; include a sketch of the optical
layout of each in your comparison.
Compare a radio
telescope to an optical telescope in terms of functions, design, and use.
Describe what is
meant by the term “invisible astronomy.”
infrared telescope to an optical telescope in terms of functions, design, and
Discuss at least
two important advantages a space telescope in earth orbit has over a
ground-based telescope, and the even greater advantages of telescopes on the
Three - Central Concepts
The general theory
of relativity views space and time as unified in four dimensions. The new view
of gravity—radically different from that of Newton's—predicts an expanding universe that
may be finite or infinite in space-time. •
The dynamic earth
is a highly evolved planet, built over thousands of millions of years by
geologic processes that are driven by the slow outflow of internal heat. It
serves as the model for understanding other planets.
Three - Learning Outcomes
principle of equivalence and illustrate it with a concrete example.
Show how the
principle of equivalence leads to the local cancellation of gravitational
forces and weightlessness.
contrast Aristotle's, Newton's,
and Einstein's concepts of natural motion for bodies falling near the earth and
of the motions of heavenly bodies.
Describe what is
meant by the term space-time and give a common example.
concepts of natural motion must be coupled to a notion of the geometry of
space-time, both locally and for the cosmos globally.
interior structure of the earth, indicating the composition of each general
region, and argue that the earth's interior structure implies that it must have
been molten at one time.
Argue from at
least two observations that the earth's core probably has a metallic
Outline a possible
model for the evolution of the earth's oceans that ties in with a broader view
of the earth's history.
Four - Central Concepts
The evolutions of
the moon, Mercury, Mars, and Venus have been driven by processes similar to
those that have created the earth, but have not operated as long or as
Four - Learning Outcomes
Compare the moon,
Mercury, Mars, Venus, and the earth in terms of their general surface and
physical properties (such as mass and density), with a special focus on how we
know this information.
planet's major surface features and indicate a possible formation process for
contrast the surface environments (such as temperature, atmosphere, surface
features, escape speed) of the terrestrial planets.
Sketch a model for
the structure of the interior of each terrestrial planet and compare them.
process of cratering of planetary surfaces and tell how craters can be used to
infer the relative ages of surfaces.
Use Newton's law of
gravitation to explain the nature of tidal forces, and apply tidal forces to
Five - Central Concepts
planets, compared to the terrestrial ones, have greater masses and sizes but
lower densities. Today they pretty much resemble their early states because
they preserve little of the history of their evolution.
Five - Learning Outcomes
contrast the Jovian planets as a group to the terrestrial planets, emphasizing
the greatest differences.
Jovian planets to one another in terms of their relative sizes, relative
masses, bulk densities, atmospheric compositions, internal structures, and
Compare the rings
of Saturn with those of Uranus, Neptune, and Jupiter in terms of size, shape,
and possible composition.
contrast the general characteristics, surface features, and evolution of the
Galilean satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Six - Central Concepts
The planets formed
from an interstellar cloud of gas and dust as a natural outgrowth to the
formation of the sun. They then evolved by common processes into the planets of
The sun produces
its life-giving energy by nuclear fusion reactions transforming hydrogen to
helium in its hot core. The outward flow of this energy determines the sun's
Six - Learning Outcomes
compare the general physical properties of comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and
meteorites, and state what the radioactive dating of meteorites implies for the
dating of the formation of the solar system.
Specify what clues
asteroids, comets, and meteorites provide about the formation of the solar
system, with special emphasis on the composition of each.
appearance of the sun's spectrum and state the atomic processes that produce
Briefly, in a
sentence or two, explain the source of the sun's energy.
State the specific
thermonuclear reactions that produce the sun's energy and describe the
conditions needed for them to take place.
Seven - Central Concepts
determine the physical properties of stars by finding their distances and
analyzing the light received from them. Their properties can be summarized in a
mass luminosity diagram. Like the sun, we find that stars are naturally
controlled thermonuclear reactors.•
Stars are born out
of the material in the space between the stars. This material consists of gas
(in a variety of forms) and dust, mostly collected in clouds.
methods astronomers use to find the following physical properties of stars:
surface temperature, chemical composition, size (radius or diameter), mass,
luminosity, and density.
relationship between a star's color and its surface temperature.
Show by a simple
diagram the relationship between a star's distance and its parallax, noting the
limitations imposed by the earth _ sun distance.
observational evidence for the presence of gas and dust between the stars.
contrast the different forms in which the interstellar gas is found and tell
how each form is observed.
observable effects of interstellar dust on starlight.
Argue that star
birth is occurring now in our Galaxy, with a focus on infrared and radio
observational evidence to date for the existence of extra solar planets around
Eight - Central Concepts
their physical properties change as they go through their normal lives. The
main agent in how and how fast a star evolves is its mass.•
Stars finally lose
their struggle with gravity. Most stars die violently and leave behind strange
corpses: white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
Eight - Learning Outcomes
physical basis of a theoretical model of a star, that is, the physical concepts
that go into building a star model.
evolution of a 1-solar_mass star on an H -R diagram, describing the physical
changes of the star that result from changes in the star's core.
evolutionary tracks of a 1-solar-mass star and a 5-solar--mass star on an H - R
Indicate how mass
and chemical composition affects stellar evolution.
fusion reactions in stars during their normal lives result in the manufacture
of some heavy elements, and indicate how these processed materials may be
recycled to the interstellar medium.
physical natures of white dwarfs and neutron stars; describe the place of each
in stellar evolution and observational evidence for them.
models for supernova explosions and describe the effects of the aftermath of
such an explosion on the interstellar medium.
evidence that the Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant and describe the effect of
the pulsar on the nebula now.
synchrotron radiation is emitted, identify its observed properties, and apply
this concept to appropriate astrophysical situations.
nucleosynthesis can occur in a supernova and identify possible products of such
Nine - Central Concepts
Field Trip to the
Air and Space Museum
Nine - Learning Outcomes
application of all previous outcomes
Ten - Central Concepts
The evolution of
the Milky Way, a spiral galaxy, is driven primarily by the evolution of the
parts that make up its disk.•
Galaxies make up
the visible universe; how are they distributed throughout space and time gives
us clues about the origin of the cosmos.
Ten - Learning Outcomes
Explain at least
one astronomical difficulty in trying to figure out the structure of the Galaxy
from our location in it.
Name the important
spiral arm tracers and state generally how they are used to map spiral
observational evidence for the Galaxy's having a spiral structure; that is,
describe what specific methods astronomers use to work out the positions of
rotation curve of the Galaxy, describe how to find from it the approximate mass
of the Galaxy, and argue that a significant amount of the Galaxy's mass must
exist in the halo in an unseen form.
Outline a model
for the evolution of the disk of the Galaxy.
Speculate on the
future of the Galaxy from current information and models.
Last Updated:12/3/2006 9:26:55 AM