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Education Major Version

EDE 355 Classroom Management forElementary Teachers
Hennessy, Gail B.


Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

School For Education Mission Statement
The School for Education at Park University, an institution committed to diversity and best practice, prepares educators to be effective school professionals, reflective change agents, and advocates for equity and excellence for all learners.



Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


Course

EDE 355 Classroom Management forElementary Teachers

Semester

FA 2007 HO

Faculty

Hennessy, Gail B.

Office Location

Copley Room 213

Office Hours

M/F 9:00-10:30, W 10:00-2:00(depending on faculty meetings)

Daytime Phone

(816)584-6323

E-Mail

gail.hennessy@park.edu

Semester Dates

Aug. 20- Dec. 14

Class Days

-M---F-

Class Time

12:25 - 1:40 PM

Prerequisites

EDU 203  and admission into the School for Education and to be taken simultaneously with Practicum

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:

Jones, V. & Jones, L. (8th ed.) Comprehenive Classroom Managment Creating Communities of Support and Solving Problems.  Boston: Pearson.
 
Wong, H. & Wong, R. (2005).  The First Days of School. Mountain View: Harry K. Wong Publications.

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:
Theory and skills necessary to implement classroom management strategies are presented through lecture, discussion and classroom observations. Students will explore the theoretical foundations, knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary to create supportive teacher-student relationships and to implement developmentally appropriate guidance and classroom management strategies. The course includes guidance procedures for integrating children with and without disabilities. Students will observe and analyze guidance and management practices in a variety of appropriate early childhood, elementary, middle school and secondary settings. Prerequisites: EDU 203 and admission to the School for Education. To be taken simultaneously with Practicum. 3:0:3.

Educational Philosophy:
 

The instructor believes there is no single more powerful factor in a classroom than the teacher. Each teacher candidate must strive to develop the necessary knowledge, skills, and dispositions to meet the needs of each learner that enters his or her classroom. An effective classroom manager can ensure each learner has the opportunity to learn to the best of his or her potential in a safe, caring environment. To build a classroom community one must have knowledge of various theories and methods, skills to develop a climate of success for all, and dispositions to be an equitable, caring, professional. Stating this premise the instructor will engage each learner in studying a variety of theories and methods, reflecting and developing ways to build a positive classroom environment, analyzing effective methods for disciplinary interventions, and respecting and encouraging the diversity each individual will bring to the classroom setting.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Compare and contrast basic classroom management theories, methods, and techniques.
  2. Critically analyze theories, methods, and techniques for use with group and individual motivation when developing rules, procedures, student responsibility, and disciplinary interventions.
  3. Evaluate and critique classroom and school-wide management/discipline systems.
  4. Create and evaluate their own classroom community and management plan that encourages positive interaction, active engagement, and self-motivation using best practices
  5. Construct a plan to establish a safe, equitable, positive, and supportive environment in which individuals are valued.
  6. Examine and create a plan to manage time, space, transitions, and activities effectively in a classroom environment where diversity will exist.
  7. Analyze, evaluate, and reflect on best practices for ensuring academic and social success for individuals with and without exceptional learning needs.
  8. Analyze, evaluate, and reflect on personal characteristics that will present themselves when developing and managing a classroom community.
  9. Analyze and develop professional and ethical practices in relation to students, parents, colleagues, and administrators.
  10. Examine personal beliefs and articulate a philosophy of classroom management based upon an understanding of current knowledge and research.


Core Assessment:


  • Research Paper and Presentation

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

1-      Core Assessment     Handbook for Classroom Climate and Management
          Core Assessment has the parts each student should address. The handbook will be built around the beliefs and theories each student studies and then applies to the own core beliefs.  The handbook will have sections that will be addressed and supported by educational theories and theorists.  The handbook will have plans for building and effective classroom climate and managment system. 
            Powerpoint presentation   ----  Summing up the Handbook for Classrom Climate and Management.  (Hopefully students will download presentation to portfolio.  It can then be used both for the portfolio but also for interviewing needs)
 
2-      Readings from texts and professional journals. 
         Each individual will be expected to read and reflect on the information presented in the texts and to be on the "lookout" for pertinent articles, etc. about classroom climate/managment.
 
3.      Quality Indicator 1.2.6 along with the performance indicators and artifacts needed.  Use the Portfolio Rubric and class discussion and work to complete this task successfully.
 
4.      Observations      Each student will do 3 classroom write-ups of observations done in classrooms addressing classroom climate and/or classroom management.  Specific criteria will be given for each observation  Students will lead discussion with the class about these observations planning questions and points to discuss.  It will not be merely a summary of the observation. 
 
5.      Classroom Activities   Each student will write and share with the class members effective 3 classroom activities that can be used to build positive classroom environments.  The students will provide copies for each member of the course.
 
6.      Conceptual Framerwork Paper   Each student will select components from Park University's conceptual framework dealing with classroom climate and/or management reflect on them and connect with how the ideas may be used in a classroom setting.  Specific criteria will be given.
 
7.      Quotes      Each student will collect 3 quotes that connect to the beliefs he or she has developed about classroom climate/management cite the quotes and bring copies for each member of the course.
            

Grading:

Core Assessment   Handbook for Classroom Climate and Management      500 points
                              Powerpoint Presentation  -- Summary of Handbook      100 points
 
Quality Indicator 1.2.6 with the performance indicators       100 points
 
Observation Write-ups and Discussion      20 points each
 
Classroom Activities      15 points each
 
Conceptual Framework Paper     25 points
 
Quotes with citation      10 points each

Late Submission of Course Materials:
 

Timely completion is built into assignment criteria. Late work of daily assignments (i.e. quality indicators/standards, reflective writing, academic articles, etc.) will be accepted up to one week late, but the grade will be reduced an additional 10 percent of earned grade (i.e. if earned an 85% grade will be recorded as 75%). Due dates are on the class syllabus. Late submission of  resource notebook, book, book sharing/lesson plan, and final will result in a grade reduction of 25%. Absolutely no late work will be accepted after the assigned time of the final. Any missing assignments after the final’s date will be recorded as a “zero”. 

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
 

As future teachers, the students in the environment should practice the dispositions that are listed in the Philosophy and Frameworks of the Education Department. In short each member of the class should be polite, focused, and a positive participant in the classroom. Everyone should be willing to share ideas and listen to others respectfully.
 
As part of the course, EDE 355 Classroom Mangement for Elementary Teachers participants will be encouraged to review, develop, and set criteria for completition of some assignments.  The focus of this course is effective classroom environments and the instructor feels participating will help develop skills to have highly effective classrooms.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

 

Week

 

Date

 

Topics/Assignments

 

1

 

Aug. 20

 

Course introduction, "What's in the Bag?", video

 

 

Aug. 24

 

Jones & Jones Ch 1 & 2 Discussion and notes needed to support theories students feel a connection starting

 

2

 

Aug. 27

 

Theories/ Theoriest, Marzano's research, continued collection of information to build belief system

 

 

Aug. 31

 

Theories/Theories, Marzano's research, continued collection of information to build belief system

 

3

 

Sept. 3

 

Labor Day – No Class

 

 

Sept. 7

 

 

Analyze "what parts fit with your background and beliefs"
Wong Ch. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7
4

 

Sept. 10

 

Share views of theories/theoriests wthat would help develop classroom community S-1, An-1, Ap-1

 

 

Sept. 14

 

Jones & Jones Ch 3, 6, Individuals Valued An-3

 

5

 

Sept. 17

 

Power of Teacher's Words, Wong Ch. 9 & 10

 

 

Sept. 21

 

BIST presentation

 

6

 

Sept. 24

 

Managing time, space, and transitions AN-2, S-2, Wong Chapters 11-17

 

 

Sept. 28

 

Managing time, space, and transitions
Observation Due with Discussion preparation
7

 

Oct. 1

 

Motivation and Allowing for Diversity, Jones & Jones Ch. 4 & 7

 

 

Oct. 5

 

Motivation and Allowing for Diversity
Observation with Discussion preparation
8

 

Oct. 8

 

Discuss Handbook Progress -- set goals for completition
finish discusssions

 

Oct. 12

 

Working with Parents Jones & Jones Ch 5

 

 

Oct.14-21

 

Fall Recess

 

9

 

Oct. 22

 

Control Theory, Love & Logic
Quotes due for all members of course

 

Oct. 26

 

Discussion of Classroom Climate & Management skills
Observation due with discussion
10

 

Oct. 29

 

Management Skills Jones & Jones Ch. 8

 

 

Nov. 2

 

 

Management Skills Jones & Jones Ch 9 & 10

 

11

 

Nov. 5

 

Wong Ch 18, 19, 20
Observation due with discussion

 

Nov. 9

 

Discipline w/o Stress, Punishements or Rewards

 

12

 

Nov. 12

 

Veteran's Day -- no class

 

 

Nov. 16

 

Share Analysis & Application sections of Handbook from Core Assessment
Discipline w/o Stress, Punishments or Rewards
13

 

Nov. 19

 

Discuss & Plan for Evaluatioon and Synthesis from Core Assessment

 

 

Nov. 23

 

Thanksgiving – No Class

 

14

 

Nov. 26

 

3 Classroom Activities to build community share --- do one with group

 

 

Nov. 29

 

Quality Indicator 1.2.6 complete with performance indicators

 

15

 

Dec. 3

 

Handbook Complete and handed in
Powerpoint presentations of summary of handbook

 

Dec. 7

 

Powerpoint presentations of summary of handbook
Discussion what did you learn???
Finals

 

Dec. 10

 

10:15-12:15

 

Required meeting NOTICE: Absolutely no late work will be accepted after the designated final date. Dec. 10 at 10:15

 

 

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  3. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  4. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  5. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  6. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  7. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Bibliography:
 

Clayton, M. (2001). Classroom Spaces that Work. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast

     Foundation for Children, Inc.

Denton, P. (2007). The Power of Our Words. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast

      Foundation for Children, Inc.

Fay, J. & Funk, D. (1995). Teaching with Love & Logic. Golden: The Love and Logic

      Press.

Glasser, W. (1969). Schools Without Failure. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.

Glasser, W. (1992). The Quality School. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Glasser. W. & Glasser C. (1999). The Language of Choice Theory. New York:

      Harper & Row, Publishers.

Jones, F. (2000). Tools for Teaching. Santa Cruz: Fredric H. Jones & Associates, Inc.

Kohn, A. (2006). Beyond Discipline from Compliance to Community. Alexandria:

     Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Loomans, D. & Kolberg, K. (1993). The Laughing Classroom. Novato, CA: HJ Kramer

      Book.

Marshall, M. (2005). Discipline without Stress Punishments or Rewards. Los Alamitos:

     Piper Press.

Marzano, R (2007).The Art and Science of Teaching.. Alexandria: Association for                             

        Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R (2003). Classroom Management that Works. Alexandria: Association for                             

        Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R, Gaddy, B. Foseid, M., Foseid, M. & Marzano, J. (2005) A Handbook for

        Classroom Management that Works. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and

         Curriculum Development.

Mendler. A. (2001). Connecting with Students. Alexandria: Association for Supervision

           and Curriculum Development.

Smith, R. (2004). Conscious Classroom Management: Unlocking the Secrets of Great

     Teaching. San Rafael, CA: Conscious Teaching Publications.

Sullo, B. (2007). Activating the Desire to Learn. Alexandria: Association for Supervision

     and Curriculum Development.

Whitaker. T. (2004) What Great Teachers Do Differently. Larchmont: Eye on

      Education.



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Appraises:
1-group and individual motivation when developing rules, procedures, student, responsibility and disciplinary interventions
2-her or his own classroom community and management plan
3-personal characteristics that will present themselves when developing and managing a classroom community
Narrative uses 3 or more examples explaining connection
References used to support appraisal

 
Appraises:
1-group and individual motivation when developing rules, procedures, student, responsibility and disciplinary interventions
2-her or his own classroom community and management plan
3-personal characteristics that will present themselves when developing and managing a classroom community
Narrative uses 2 examples explaining connection

 
Appraises:
1-group and individual motivation when developing rules, procedures, student, responsibility and disciplinary interventions
2-her or his own classroom community and management plan
3-personal characteristics that will present themselves when developing and managing a classroom community
Narrative uses 2 examples  with  limited explanation

 
Appraises:
1-group and individual motivation when developing rules, procedures, student, responsibility and disciplinary interventions
2-her or his own classroom community and management plan
3-personal characteristics that will present themselves when developing and managing a classroom community
Narrative lacks examples


 
Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Plan for:
1-the development of a classroom community,
2- ways to manage time, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3- the development of a disciplinary plan (rules procedures, possible resolutions, etc)
Both narrative and graphic representations
 
Plan for:
1-the development of a classroom community,
2- ways to manage time, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3- the development of a disciplinary plan (rules procedures, possible resolutions, etc)
Narrative
 
Plan for:
1-the development of a classroom community,
2- ways to manage time, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3- the development of a disciplinary plan (rules procedures, possible resolutions, etc)
Narrative is not organized or lacks voice, 3-5 convention errors

 
Plan for:
1-the development of a classroom community,
2- ways to manage time, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3- the development of a disciplinary plan (rules procedures, possible resolutions, etc)
Less than 3 plans
Narrative is not organized or lacks voice, more than 5 convention errors
 
Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Compare/contrast and  analyzes
1- motivation theories, behavior management strategies and/ or techniques
2-  uses of time management, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3 –  ways to engage students in decision making
demonstrating understanding connecting ideas to more than one theorist and/or theory in each category
 
Compare/contrast and analyzes
1- motivation theories, behavior management strategies and/ or techniques
2-  uses of time management, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3 – ways to engage students in decision making
demonstrating understanding connecting ideas to a  theorist and/or theory in each category
 
Compare/contrast and analyzes
1- motivation theories, behavior management strategies and/ or techniques
2-  uses of time management, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3 –  ways to engage students in decision making
demonstrating understanding connecting ideas to a  theorist and/or theory in less than 3 categories
 
Compare/contrast and analyzes
1- motivation theories, behavior management strategies and/ or techniques
2-  uses of time management, space, transitions, and activities effectively
3 – ways to engage students in decision making
demonstrating  understanding but does not  connect ideas to a  theorist and/or theory
 
Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Develop  belief statements for her/his classroom community (include references) and standards for student behavior including affective wording (quotes, personal gains, etc)
Present these in classroom ready professional appearance
 
Develop  belief statements for her/his classroom community (include references) and standards for student behavior including affective wording (quotes, personal gains, etc)
Written professionally
 
Develop  belief statements for her/his classroom community  (references missing) and standards for student behavior including affective wording (quotes, personal gains, etc)
3 or more convention errors
 
Develop one belief statement for her/his classroom community  (references missing)  or standards for student behavior including affective wording (quotes, personal gains, etc)
6 or more convention errors
 
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
The presentation of the culminating project:
1-Format organized
2- Personal voice is developed
3-Ideas presented clearly
4-Errors in conventions (less than 5)
5-Professional appearance
6-Classroom ready
 
The presentation of the culminating project:
1-Format organized
2- Personal voice is developed
3-Ideas presented clearly
4-Errors in conventions (5-10 errors)
5-Professional appearance
 
The presentation of the culminating project
lacks one of these areas:
1-Format organized
2- Personal voice is developed
3-Ideas presented clearly
4-Errors in conventions (10-15 errors)
5-Professional appearance
 
The presentation of the culminating project
lacks two or more of these areas:
1-Format organized
2- Personal voice is developed
3-Ideas presented clearly
4-Errors in conventions (10-15 errors)
5-Professional appearance
 
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
The culminating project contains no more than 5 errors in final project:
1-References cited correctly (APA)
2-People first and gender sensitive
3-Word Usage
4-Spelling
5-Punctuation
6-Paragraph and sentence fluency
 
The culminating project contains no more than 5 errors in any of the below areas (less than 10 overall):
1-References cited correctly (APA)
2-People first and gender sensitive
3-Word Usage
4-Spelling
5-Punctuation
6-Paragraph and sentence fluency
 
The culminating project contains no more than 5 errors in any of the below areas (less than 15 overall):
1-References cited correctly (APA)
2-People first and gender sensitive
3-Word Usage
4-Spelling
5-Punctuation
6-Paragraph and sentence fluency
 
The culminating project contains 15 or more errors in below area:
1-References cited correctly (APA)
2-People first and gender sensitive
3-Word Usage
4-Spelling
5-Punctuation
6-Paragraph and sentence fluency
 
Disciplinary Competency:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
MoSTEP Indicator 1.2.6  The pre-service teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
____thoroughly demonstration knowledge of more than one motivation theory and behavior management strategies and techniques (defined and referenced) with at least two artifacts explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.1
____thoroughly demonstrates the use of effective management of time, space, transitions and activities (defined and referenced more than one theorist and/or theory) with at least two artifacts explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.2
_____thoroughly understands ways to engage students in decision making (defined and referenced theory) with at least two artifacts explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.3
 
_______demonstrates knowledge of motivation theories and behavior management strategies and techniques (define and reference theorist and/or theory) with an artifact explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.1

________demonstrates the use of effective management of time, space, transitions and activities (define and reference theorist and/or theory) with an artifact explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.2

_______demonstrates an understanding of ways to engage students in decision making (define and reference theorist and/or theory) with an artifact explaining its content and application along with how it demonstrates competency
1.2.6.3
 
_______does not demonstrate an understanding of motivation theories and behavior management strategies and techniques (no theorist and/or theory) with an artifact that is identified but does not show relationship to competency
1.2.6.1

________discusses effective use of  management of time, space, transitions, and activities (no theorist and/or theory) with an artifact that is identified but does not show relationship to competency
1.2.6.2

________discusses engaging students in decision making (no theorist and/or theory) with an artifact that is identified but does not show relationship to competency
1.2.6.3
 
_______does not demonstrate an understanding of motivation theories and behavior management strategies and techniques (no theorist and or theory) artifact is missing
1.2.6.1

_________does not demonstrate an understanding of management of time, space, transitions, and activities (no theorist and or theory) artifact is missing
1.2.6.2

________does not demonstrate an understanding of engaging students in decision making
(no theorist and or theory) artifact is missing
1.2.6.3
 
Disciplinary Competency:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
MoSTEP Indicator: 1.2.9 The pre-service teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually assesses the effects of choices and actions on others. This reflective practitioner actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally and utilizes the assessment and professional growth to generate more learning for more students.                                                                                                                                                                            
______thoroughly defines self-assessment and problem solving strategies for reflecting on practice and his/her influences on students and its complexity(two or more examples are identified and explained), two or more artifacts are explained as to their applications and how they demonstrate competency
1.2.9.1
________thoroughly explains the practices involved in professional ethical standards (two or more examples are identified and explained) two or more artifacts are explained at to their applications and how they demonstrate competency
1.2.9.3
 
_______ defines self-assessment and problem solving strategies for reflecting on practice and his/her influences on students and its complexity(one example is identified and explained), one artifact is identified and explained as to its application  and how it demonstrates competency
1.2.9.1

________ explains the practices involved in professional ethical standards (one example is identified and explained) one artifact is identified and explained as to its application  and how it demonstrates competency
1.2.9.3
 
_________ weakly defines self-assessment and problem solving strategies for reflecting on practice and his/her influences on students and its complexity, one artifact is identified but not explained and/or related
1.2.9.1

________weakly explains the practices involved in professional ethical standards, one artifact is identified but not explained and/or related
1.2.9.3
 
_______insufficient explanation, missing artifact and its application
1.2.9.1

________ insufficient explanation, missing artifact and its application
1.2.9.3
 

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Last Updated:8/5/2007 5:03:02 PM