EDM380 Literacy for Middle Sch Tchrs

for FA 2007

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School For Education Mission Statement
The School for Education at Park University, an institution committed to diversity and best practice, prepares educators to be effective school professionals, reflective change agents, and advocates for equity and excellence for all learners.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


EDM 380 Literacy for Middle Sch Tchrs


FA 2007 HOZ


Greene, Judy Ann


Assistant Professor of Education, Literacy


PCII Reading Specialist

Office Location

rm. 317 Copley Hall

Office Hours

TBD & by appointment

Daytime Phone




Semester Dates

August 20-December 14

Class Days


Class Time



To be taken simultaneously with/or after ED 359C

Credit Hours



Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-86709-519-9

Fountas, Irene C., Pinnell, Gay Su. (2006) Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency: Thinking, Talking, and Writing About Reading, K-8. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-325-00308-4

Gallagher, Kelly. (2003) Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini-Lessons for Middle and High School. Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-356-2.

Johnson, Peter H. (2004) Choice Words. Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-389-9

Additional Resources:



Lyons, Carol A. (2003) Teaching Struggling Readers. Heinemann Publishers

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
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Course Description:
Theories and techniques of teaching reading and study skills in the middle school classroom are explored. Included will be the connection between reading, writing, thinking, speaking, and listening. Students are expected to do actual tutoring of a student or students for the laboratory portion of this course. Prerequisite: Admission to the School of Education. To be taken simultaneously with EDM 359 and practicum. 5:1:6.

Educational Philosophy:
Teachers must be willing learners who embody what they hope to cultivate in their students—curiosity and joy of learning, courage to risk being wrong, ability to connect the classroom to the world around it as a desirable way to enrich and empower genuine mobility in personal, social, and professional life. Teachers must also have at heart the understanding that little of value can be communicated without first establishing and maintaining a human, mutually respectful relationship. In other words, teachers must model what they ask of and expect from the students they teach, and they must enter the classroom with a disposition toward teaching-learning as an “us-we” instead of “me-them” effort.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Respond in a facilitative manner to challenges associated with cognitive and affective needs particular to middle school learners with diverse literacy skills.
  2. Know, understand, and use principles and terms of literacy instruction to communicate effectively with middle school learners, professional peers, and parents.
  3. Identify, explain, and use various types of assessment that result in aligning instruction and middle school learners with literacy materials and tasks, and which allows for continual evaluation of instructional effectiveness.
  4. Identify, explain, and use evidence-based strategic whole group and differentiated literacy instruction to improve and enrich all levels of middle school content literacy skills.
  5. Organize and construct meaningful links among literacy modalities, knowledge and skills, supplemental texts, and life situations to particular middle school content area literacies

Core Assessment:
  • Final Exam:  Combined performance mastery task and summative knowledge test:  (a) Lesson Plan and Demonstration of content area literacy strategy instruction, (b) Post-Test over terms

Class Assessment:



1. Text Reflections (To be done out of class; receives point score for completion) Prepare for class lecture and discussion activities. Complete 2 graphic organizers for each text chapter as assigned—one for summarizing text content, and one for analyzing & evaluating that content. Directions for this assignment are in eCompanion. Text Reflections may be typed or written by hand as long as the writing is legible. Text Reflections are due at the beginning of each class on the date listed in the Course Topics and Assignments table at the end of this syllabus.

2. Readability Study (described in eCompanion; to be done out of class; receives rubric point score): There are two parts to this assignment—

(a) Each student will figure the readability level of one text of students’

     choice using the following three formulae: (i) Fry, (ii) Cloze, and (iii)

     Flesch-Kincaid in Microsoft Word programs). The Fry and Cloze

     must be done by hand. The Cloze does not need to be administered to

     earn points; however, it should be ready for actual future use in a

     classroom setting.

(b) Write a brief report containing information and reflections using the following as headings: Compare and Contrast the Formulae, and Personal Conclusions Regarding Use of Readability Levels. Include all work such as calculations and drafts.


3. Field Experience Report (described in eCompanion; to be done out of class; receives completion/rubric score): Students are required to complete at least 30 hours of combined tutoring and classroom assistance in their assigned school setting. These hours are already scheduled into the field experience part of the course; they are not added hours. A log sheet will be provided for students to record and cooperating teachers to confirm field experience dates and times. The instructor will make arrangements for students' field experiences. This assignment has two separate components—Assessment and Tutoring. Upon completion, students will gather all observations, forms, reports, reflections, etc., compile and collate them, and create a Field Experience Report using the provided format/rubric in eCompanion.

4. YA Threesies (to be done out of class; receives rubric score) This assignment has three parts.

a)       Find and read three (3) trade books written for adolescents (ages 12-18). Books must be linked to content area, and must be listed in a bona fide Young Adult Literature list. 

b)      Prepare a summary of the books using a graphic organizer from text or other source presented in class (e.g., Venn diagram, Fishbone, Frayers, etc.)

c)       Design three (3) activities and/or strategies from course texts or as presented in class sessions that link all three books, and that use at least one modality from each of the three types of literacy: text (reading and writing), oral (speaking and listening), and visual (viewing and visual representation).

Students will share (informal discussion; not simulated demonstration) their YA Threesies project with the class, providing a copy for each fellow class member. 

5. Literacy Strategy Lessons and Demonstrations (described in eCompanion; to be done in/out of class)


          Strategy Lessons (receives completion/rubric score): Each student will use the provided format and rubric to write three strategy lessons appropriate for the literacy skills related to their content area. (Note: this is not the department lesson plan format.) Each lesson must: (a) incorporate a strategy from the course texts or as presented in class that is specifically designed to improve one or more literacy skills; (b) incorporate at least one modality from each of the three types of literacy— text (reading/writing), oral (speaking/listening), and visual (graphic depiction/student-created drawing—into the lesson's learning activities. Students are welcome to collaborate in creating and revising each other's Literacy Strategy Lessons outside of class; however, each student must submit his or her own individual Literacy Strategy Lessons. 

            Lesson Demonstrations: (to be done in class; receives completion/rubric score) Each student will present his or her Literacy Strategy Lessons in simulated classroom situations. Fellow class members will role-play learners in a particular content area classroom. Students are expected to demonstrate the “language of learning” as described in the required text, Choice Words. Each lesson demonstration will be followed by a feedback-discussion session in which “learners” will give feedback to “teacher" to help the “teacher” revise and improve the lesson and teaching skills. The instructor will also provide feedback.

NOTE: The first two lessons & demonstrations are intended to prepare for mastery, and will receive completion points; the third written lesson & demonstration are considered summative, mastery performance tasks and will earn rubric points. They will occur during the last week of the course, and will comprise 2/3 of the Final Exam for this course. 


6. Report AND Observation Paper (to be done out of class; receives rubric score): Each student is to select a literacy theory/method/strategy currently in use and relevant to their particular needs and interests. Students are to research and observe the use of their chosen topic in the school to which they have been assigned for practicum hours. This paper should be at least 10 full pages of text, cite sources on a separate page, and adhere to the Model for Formal Writing provided by the instructor. Students are required to use at least one hard copy journal article from each of four of the following educational organizations: IRA, ASCD, Phi Delta Kappan, NCTE, AERA, NCTM, NMSA, NCSS, NSTA.   (Minimum total of four articles, each from a different hard copy journal). A copy of either the cover or first page of each article must be submitted with the paper. Internet sources may also be included.   Park’s online and on-site library is a good source for materials, as are the course texts—ask a reference librarian for help. There are two parts to this paper—(1) historical development, (2) observation of actual use in school settings. Each topic and subtopic must appear as underlined headings in the paper followed by students’ findings and discussion.


History & Development should comprise no more than 50% of the paper. It should include the following subtopic headings: (a) Origin of Chosen Topic, (b) Changes Since Its Beginning, and (c) Current Issues Involving Chosen Topic

Classroom Observation should comprise at least 50% of the paper. It should include the following subtopic headings: (a) Explicit Description and Specific Examples of Implementation (how you saw the theory/method/strategy actually used in the classroom); (b) Observed Classroom Practice vs. Professional literature (compare and contrast what was observed in the classroom with what was read in the literature); (c) Effectiveness of Classroom Implementation (analyze effectiveness in the school/classroom), (c) Conclusions Regarding Overall Value of Chosen Topic ( make conclusions about the overall value to teachers and learners). 

In cases where the chosen topic is not used in the classroom, students are to compare and contrast the topic with any literacy method or strategy that is used in the assigned school setting, then address the following subtopic headings: (a) Description and Examples of Other, Similar Theory/Method/Strategy Observed in Classroom (provide explicit description and specific examples of a method/strategy used in the setting that is similar or comparable to the chosen one); (b) How Chosen Topic Could Be Used in Classroom (analyze how the chosen topic might be incorporated or adapted for use in the assigned setting; (c) Chosen Topic  vs. What was Observed (compare & contrast benefits of chosen theory/method/strategy with the comparable one used in school setting. 

7. I Know That I Know Notebook (to be done in/out of class; receives point score): Beginning with the second class, each student is to begin collecting course materials he or she feels will be useful and organize them in a binder so they can serve as a resource for future needs.   This is essentially the same thing as a resource notebook for future use in other courses and as classroom teacher. Points (5 points for each section) will be earned for: (a) binder labeled with course name, (b) table of contents, listing sections according to students' preferences, and (c) each section clearly labeled & tabbed. Students are to bring their notebooks on one of the last two days of class to receive points. 

8. Course Pre- Assessment and Post-Test (to be done in class, Pre-Assessment receives completion/Post-Test receives point score) Duringthe first class session, a fill-in-the-blank, short answer assessment will be given covering course knowledge, concepts, and skills. Results of the pre-assessment will be used, in part, to determine and finalize class session topics and learning activities. A post-test will cover the same knowledge, concepts, and skills as the pre-assessment. The post-test will be a culminating, summative task, will function as the second half of the final examination, and will earn a raw point score grade. Post-test scores will be compared with pre-assessment scores to determine effectiveness of instruction and student learning.


Assignment                                                  Points                   

Pre-Assessment for Course                                         Required for final grade

Text Reflections 12 @ 5                                               60

Readability Study                                                         20

Field Experience Report                                               50

YA Threesies                                                                35

Report and Observation Paper                          45

Literacy Strategy Lesson #1 & 2 (2 @ 30)                     60

Lesson Demonstration # 1 & 2 (2 @ 15)                       30

Final “Exam”

3rd Literacy Strategy Lesson (written)              35

3rd Literacy Strategy Demonstration                20

Post-Test                                                        30

I Know That I Know Notebook                                     15


                            TOTAL POINTS:     400   


 NOTE: Grades are computed on points, not percentages

A = 375 – 400 points     

B = 360 - 374

C = 345 - 359

D = 330 – 344

F = 329 points or less

Late Submission of Course Materials:



o        Assignments should be submitted on time even if student is absent (excepting emergencies). Use fax, ask fellow class member and/or friend to deliver to instructor’s mailbox, rm. 309 on the third floor of Copley Hall, or to box on instructor's office door.

o        All assignments are required in order to earn a final grade whether or not they earn points.

o        Late assignments will result in loss of 1 point per day late. 

o         Students are advised to submit assignments before their listed due date. 

§         Except for Text Reflections and the Field Experience Report, all assignments submitted before the due date are eligible for revision for full points until seven (7) days before the scheduled final exam. 

§         To support this policy, assignments submitted on the due date or after will not be eligible for revision. 

§         Assignments may be submitted in person or emailed to establish early submission; however, the instructor will not print, evaluate, or score emailed assignments. All assignments must be submitted in hard copy on the day they are due. 

§         If technology problems make this impossible, a hard copy must be turned in to the instructor by midnight of the due date to be considered as submitted on time.

§         Each time an assignment is submitted for re-evaluation, the original or most recent draft must be attached with a copy of the instructor’s edits and all written feedback. Re-submitted assignments that do not have draft(s) with instructor’s written feedback will be returned without reconsideration. 

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

Professional demeanor & dispositions are essential evidence that students are ready to be classroom teachers--passing grades on assignments are not sufficient. The Professional Teaching Dispositions will be presented to students on the first day of class. The instructor will go over the dispositions with students at that time. Students will evaluate themselves, as well as by the instructor, cooperating teachers, and possibly site administrators on the teaching dispositions. The purpose of this is to give feedback to students to help them reflect upon and develop the degree and depth of the attitudes and behaviors expected of outstanding educators. The instructor will address and/or hold students accountable for the following:

  • If students are representing themselves and Park University as pre-service educators, they are required to arrive on time to their assigned cooperating schools dressed in a professional manner—no bare midriffs, sagging pants, tight tops, etc. If the instructor is on practicum site, she will send home anyone who is inappropriately attired. Students should ask the instructor if they are in doubt about appropriate attire.
  • Key moments can be sabotaged by cell phones. Making/receiving phone calls or text messaging during class interferes with teaching and learning. It is rude to fellow class members, and disrespectful to the instructor; therefore, turn them off. If a student feels she or he must have access to a phone during class sessions, the school phone can be used. Any exceptions must be cleared with the instructor ahead of time. 
  • Wafting odors of burgers, chicken nuggets, and the sounds of salad being chewed can drive those who have not had time to forage to the brink of madness; therefore, bring only a snack that can be quickly ingested and removed from sight and smell! In the case of Watson Literacy Center, no food or drink is permitted in any area except for water, which must be in a container with a tight-fitting lid. Break times will be provided to relieve the need for colas, chips, etc.
  • Professional demeanor & dispositions are essential evidence that students are ready to be classroom teachers--passing grades on assignments are not sufficient. Examples of expected demeanor & dispositions are: dresses and uses language appropriately; is actively engaged during class sessions; expresses more interest in course content than in points or grades; completes assignments and responsibilities on time; makes arrangements for personal and professional needs so that neither conflicts with the other. Examples of unacceptable demeanor & dispositions are: inattentive, disengaged behavior; asking instructor for information/directions contained in syllabus or course materials in eCompanion (e.g., due dates, office hours, etc.), slouching or sleeping during class; irregular attendance; doing homework for another class; inappropriate language for school classrooms. As certified teachers are evaluated by a supervisor for demeanor & dispositions, so will students in this course will be evaluated. Overall demeanor & dispositions will be confronted that do not meet expectations as described above.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:


(Assignments to be submitted are listed in right “column” by check box on day due):




Topics/Assignments                                                                                  Assignments Due






? Pre-Assessment

? Introductions:  people, course, procedures, syllabus





? What is reading?  What is literacy?  What about middle school literacy?

? Bloom’s Taxonomy

? Manzo text chapters 1 & 2:  Why & What Teachers Should Know, Concepts & Terms to Get Started

? Johnston –Poem & Foreword




? Start Field Experience –tentative! 





? The Brain:  Reading & Teaching……………………………………………………….……………………………………... ? Text Reflect #1






? Assessment




? Assessment………………………………………………………………………………………..? Text Reflect #2




? Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………..? Readability Study




? Assessment…..……………………………………………………………………………………? Text Reflect #3





? Introduction to “BDA” model




? Before Reading Strategies …………………………………………………………………………Text Reflect #4

? LSL Demonstrations……..………………………………………………….……? 1st Literacy Strategy Lesson

                                                                                                                 Written  & Demo




? Before Reading Strategies




? Before Reading Strategies







? Introduction to “During Reading”..………..……………….…………………………………? Text Reflect #5




? During Reading Strategies







? During Reading Strategies…….............................................................................. ? Text Reflect #6

? LSL Demonstrations ………………………………………………..…………..? 2nd Literacy Strategy Lesson

                                                                                                                Written & Demo




? During Reading Strategies




? During Reading Strategies……………..……………………………………………………… ? Text Reflect #7




? During Reading Strategies







? Introduction to “After Reading” ……….………………………………..…………………… ? Text Reflect #8

? YA Threesies--share ……………………………………………………………………………… ? YA Threesies




? After Reading Strategies




? After Reading Strategies……….………………………………………………………………..? Text Reflect #9




? After Reading Strategies





? English Language Learners……………………………………………………………………? Text Reflect #10

                                                                                                              ? Report & Observation Paper




? English Language Learners




? Multicultural ……………………………………………………………………………..…….. ? Text Reflect #11




? At-Risk Reader-Learners

? Hard-to-Teach & Unmotivated Students

? LSL Demonstrations………………………………………….…? Final Literacy Strategy Lesson

                                                                                                              Written & Demo




?  At-Risk Reader-Learners

? Hard-to-Teach & Unmotivated Students………………………………..…………………? Text Reflect #12






? Final Exam

                                               ? Field Experience Report                                                                                      ? IKTIK Notebook


Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  3. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  4. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  5. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  6. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  7. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88
Instructor's Attendance Policy

• 16-week course meeting twice a week:  students may have no more than two (2) excused absences/16-week course that meets once a week may have no more than one (1) absence
• One additional absence from those allowed will drop the final course grade by one full letter grade.
• Two additional absences from those allowed will drop the final course grade by two letter grades.
• Late arrival and early departures of 15 minutes or more past the scheduled class starting and ending time each count ¼ of an absence.
• It is considered standard professional courtesy for the student to notify the instructor by phone or email ahead of time of any and all absences or late arrival/early departures (excepting emergencies).  
• In the event of an absence from tutoring session, students are required to call and personally notify the cooperating teacher and, if possible, speak to the learner being tutored, apologizing for the absence.  Students must obtain the school and, if applicable, teacher phone numbers before beginning involvement as tutor.
• The following will be unconditionally excused and require documentation:  medical or dental emergency, student's hospitalization, serious illness of close family member, natural disasters (e.g., fires, flood, etc.), jury duty, unexpected military call-up, death in family.
• The following will not be considered for excused status in excess of the two absences allowed:  job schedule, wedding or other family event, other class schedule, and other situations that are avoidable by responsible planning.  If students are in doubt, ask the instructor first.  The instructor will uphold the policies set out in this syllabus.

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Additional Information:

Adler, Mortimer J., Van Doren, Charles (1972). How to Read a Book: Revised and Updated  Edition. New York: Touchstone. ISBN: 0-671-21209-5

Atwell, Nancie. (1998). In the Middle: New Understandings About Writing, Reading, and     Learning.             Boynton/CookPublishers: Heinemann. ISBN: 0-86709-374-9

Bear, Donald R., Invernizzi, Marcia, Templeton, Shane, Johnston, Francine. (2004). Words Their       Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, 3e. Upper Saddle NJ:        Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-13-111338-0

Bennett, Barrie, Rolheiser, Carol. (2001). Beyond Monet. Toronto, Ontario: Bookation, Inc.            ISBN: 0-9695388-3-9

Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-86709-519-9

Birsh, Judith R. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, 2e. Baltimore, MD:           Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. ISBN: 1-55766-676-8

Copeland, Matt. (2005). Socratic Circles: Fostering Critical and Creative Thinking in Middle           and High School. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110394-5

Delpit, Lisa. (2002). The Skin that We Speak. New York: New Press ISBN: 1-56584-820

Donelson, Kenneth L., Nilsen, Alleen Pace. (2005) Literature for Today’s Young Adults, 7e.            Boston: Pearson Allyn Bacon Publishers. ISBN: 0-205-41033-9

Duffy, Gerald G. (2003) Explaining Reading A Resource for Teaching Concepts, Skills, and

            Strategies. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN: 1-57230-877-X

Faltis, Christian J., Coulter, Cathy A. (2008). Teaching English Learners and Immigrant        Students in Secondary School. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN:         0-13-119241-8

Fountas, Irene C., Pinnell, Gay Su. (2006) Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency: Thinking,       Talking, and             Writing About Reading, K-8. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 


Freeman, David E., Freeman, Yvonne S. (2004). Essential Linguistics: What You Need to Know

            To Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, and Grammar. New York: Heinemann.

            ISBN: 0-325-00274-6

Gallagher, Kelly. (2003) Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini-Lessons for Middle and High             School. Stenhouse             Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-356-2

Goodman, Yetta M., Marek, Ann M. (1996). Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Revaluing Readers        and Reading. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 1-878450-85-9

Gunning, Thomas G. (2006). Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties, 3rd ed.

            Boston: Pearson Education Publishers.   ISBN: 0-205-44526-5

Harvey, Stephanie, Goudvis, Anne. (2007). Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension for       Understanding And Engagement, 2e. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 


Johnston, Peter H. (2004) Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Children’s Learning. Portland, ME:  Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-3899

Keene, Ellin Oliver. Zimmerman, Susan. (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension I     in a Reader’s             Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. ISBN: 0-435-07237-4

Kohn, Alfie. (1999). Punished By Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's,           Praise, and Other Bribes. Mariner Books; New Ed edition. ISBN: 0618001816

Kohn, Alfie. (2000). The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and "Tougher Standards." Mariner Books. ISBN: 0618083456

Kroeger, Stephen D., Bauer, Anne M. (2004). Exploring Diversity: A Video Case Approach.             Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-13-117258-1

LeDoux, Joseph. (2002). The Synaptic Self. New York, NY: Viking. ISBN: 0-670-03028-7

Lyons, Carol A. (2003) Teaching Struggling Readers: How to Use Brain-Based Research to Maximize         Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Publishers. ISBN:


Manzo, Anthony V., Manzo, Ula C. (1993). Literacy Disorders: Holistic Diagnosis and         Remediation. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. ISBN: 


Manzo, Anthony, Manzo, Ula, and Thomas, Matthew. (2005) Content Area Literacy: Strategic

            Teaching for Strategic Learning. Wiley Jossey-Bass Education. ISBN: 047115167X

McCraken, Robert A., McCracken, Marlene J. (1972). Reading is Only the Tiger’s Tail: A      Language Arts Program. San Rafael, CA: Leswing Press. ISBN: none given

McGuinness, Diane. (1999). Why Our Children Can't Read and What We Can Do About It:     A Scientific      Revolution in Reading. New York: Touchstone ISBN 0684853566

Mueller, Pamela N. (2001). Lifers: Learning from At-Risk Adolescent Readers. Boston, MA:            Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-13-191360-3

Palmer, Parker J. (1997). Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life.      Jossey-Bass, Publishers. ISBN: 0787910589

Pinker, Steven. (1994). The Language Instinct. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN: 


Sousa, David A. (2001). How the Brain Learns, 2e. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. ISBN:         076197765-1

Spafford, Carol A., Grosser, George S. (2005). Dyslexia and Reading Difficulties: Research and       Resource Guide for Working with All Struggling Readers, 2e. Boston: Pearson Allyn-      Bacon. ISBN: 0-205-42856-8

Tovani, Chris. (2004) Do I Really Have to Teach Reading? Stenhouse Publishers. 

ISBN: 1-57110-376-7

Tracey, Diane H., Morrow, Lesley Mandel. (2006) Lenses on Reading; An Introduction to

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