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NS 241 Cultl & Histl Aspects of theScientific Endeavor
Williams, Donald L.


Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

Course

NS 241 Cultl & Histl Aspects of theScientific Endeavor

Semester

FA 2008 HOZ

Faculty

Williams, Donald L.

Title

Associate Professor of Biology

Degrees/Certificates

BA, Kansas Wesleyan University, Biology and Secondary Education
MA, Western State College, Biology
Ed. D., Ball State University, Science (Biology)

Office Location

Home Campus, SC114b

Office Hours

M & R: 2-4 p.m.; T & R: 10-12 noon & 2-4 p.m. or by app't.

Daytime Phone

816-584-6516

E-Mail

don.williams@park.edu

Web Page

http://captain.park.edu/dwilliams/

Semester Dates

August 18-Dec. 12, 2008

Class Days

TBA

Class Time

TBA

Prerequisites

None

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:
 

  • Haber, L. 1970. Black pioneers of science and invention. Harcourt Brace and Company, San Diego, CA. ISBN: 0-156-208566-1
  • Perrone, B., H. H. Stockel, and V. Krueger. 1989. Medicine women, curanderas, and women doctors. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK. ISBN: 0-8061-2512-8
  • Watson, J. D. 1968 (1996, renewed). The double helix. Simon & Schuster, New York.
  • Weatherford, J. 1988. Indian givers. Fawcett Columbine, New York. ISBN: 0-449-90496-2

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:
NS 241 Cultural & Historial Aspects of the Scientific Endeavor (MGE) A history of science is presented in terms of the multi-cultural aspects of our scientific heritage. Focus is upon the nature of scientific inquiry and the social factors affecting the participation of diverse groups of individuals in the advancement of science. 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
 

In this class, the instructor will attempt to create an interactive learning environment utilizing lectures, class discussions, homework, exams, quizzes, various technologies, minimal laboratory activities, and guest speakers (when appropriate and available). Each student is expected to participate within the structure of the course via discussion and debate of his/her views and personal beliefs (see Class Participation Guidelines). Critical thinking and skepticism are the cornerstones of science and the foundations to uncovering the truth about the natural world. Course topics will be presented and discussed with these foundations in mind. It is the belief of this instructor that everyone can understand and utilize scientific principles, and that science can be fun; therefore, this course will be taught from these premises.

This instructor has an “open door” policy towards students. Please feel free to come in or call if you have any questions concerning course items or college life in general.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain the nature of scientific inquiry and the scientific method;
  2. Demonstrate scientific experimentation as a problem-solving method via directed laboratory experiences;
  3. Discuss the multicultural nature of both historic and present day scientific endeavors (gained via readings and course projects);
  4. Demonstrate the use of Science Literacy, Critical Literacy, and Values Literacy via written and oral presentations.


Core Assessment:

CORE ASSESSMENT ASIGNMENT: Op-Ed Poster Display (or Editorial Page

Written Essay)

ASSIGNMENT ISSUES: Opinion-Editorial (Op-Ed) Poster Display (or Editorial Page

Written Essay)

o To discuss, in an opinion-editorial format, an historical &/or current controversial scientific issue chosen from the course;

o To identify and elaborate both sides of an historical &/or current controversial scientific issue;

o To relate the cultural and/or historical aspects of the chosen topic to current social norms;

o To include, at a minimum, 5 references formatted in the Harvard Method (name, date).

o To include, at a minimum, 2 references from personal interviews of scientists, experts, and/or individuals having a connection to the topic.

o To be formatted in the style of a newspaper Op-Ed Page with: a) two major sections being the Pro (in favor) essay and a Con (against) essay; b) side-bar articles/essays on related topics taken from or enhancing concepts found within the main essays; c) a summary/conclusion essay. This is to be on a poster display suitable for public viewing.

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:
  PROJECT GUIDELINES

  • Class Participation:
    • Grade of “A” (90-100% of the possible 50 points awarded) when student is present, punctual, attentive and considerate of others’ opinions. Material has been read and the student actively participates by contributing ideas and comments which demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the issues. Participation is superior in that critical thinking, effective communication, and sound reasoning are evident. Student is an asset to the classroom environment.
    • Grade of “B” (80-89% of the possible 50 points awarded) when student misses a minimal number of classes (2hrs. or less) but is normally present, punctual, attentive and considerate of others. Material has been read but depth of understanding and/or insight is less evident than mentioned under A, above. Comments and opinions reflect a more superficial view of the issues. Student accepts constructive criticism and maintains a positive attitude.
    • Grade of “C” (70-79% of the possible 50 points awarded) when student misses 3-4 hrs. of class sessions but is otherwise punctual, attentive, and considerate of others. Some material may have been read, but quality and quantity of participation is sporadic. Student is more passive, reluctant to share, and lacks direction. Occasionally, insight into an issue(s) is demonstrated and the effort is apparent. Student contributes to the class discussion occasionally.
    • Grade of “D” (60-69% of the possible 50 points awarded) when student misses 5-6 hrs. of class sessions but is otherwise present but exhibits an intolerance of others’ ideas and/or opinions. Evidence of an attempt at accessing the class material is present but comprehension is absent. Interest is lacking and excuses are prevalent.
    • Grade of “F” (less than 60% of the possible 50 points awarded) when student is generally absent (7+ hrs. of absences) or when present is not a positive contributor to class. No evidence of accessing course material nor participation in course discussion(s) or activities.
  • Critical Analysis Paper: 
    • You are required to write and submit two critical analysis papers. The purpose of these papers is to have you think critically about an issue and formulate an opinion to that issue. In general there will be no right or wrong answer to the matter. You can take any position as long as you support your opinion with a sound argument and, when possible, include evidence from class handouts, class discussion, or outside reading (correctly cited) which supports your case.
    • Writing these papers will enhance your ability to analyze an issue and communicate your ideas effectively. The more practice you gain, the more comfortable you will become in writing. The topic for each paper will be announced in class. Generally some handout background material will be provided.
    • The length of the body of the paper must be no less than two full pages nor more than four.  Include a title page giving title of assignment, course name and number, your name, date, and instructor’s name. A references cited page is also required giving, at a minimum, the name of the article used for the critical analysis. Your instructor will provide you with a set of examples of the Harvard Method of citation. It is to be word processed or typed, 12 pt. font, and with 1” margins and double-spaced.
    • Your grade will be based upon the insight you show, your use of critical thinking skills, and how well you communicate your ideas regarding the issue under consideration. Handouts regarding critical thinking will be distributed beforehand. Use the grammar and spell check features of your computer and use correct punctuation.
    • Grading: A grading rubric will be used to assess your papers.
      • Acceptable analysis of an issue using critical thinking information presented in class (a grading rubric will be distributed):        15 pts.
      • Identification of the critical thinking behavior(s) you chose to explore and the rationale for your choice:                           5 pts.
      • Formatting guidelines per the above met satisfactorily:     5 pts.

                                                                                                25 pts.

      • Late papers will not be accepted.

 

  • Group Classroom Presentation:
    • The presentation is to be 15-20 mins. in length.
    • Details to be addressed:
      • Discuss the cultural aspects, historical overview, barriers, breakthroughs, contemporary contributions and scientific relevance of the person and/or topic;
      • Be creative and mindful of the time limitations. Audiovisuals can be used as part of the presentation but should not make up more than 5 mins. of  the presentation time. Feel free to use handouts. Allow for discussion time of approx. 5 mins. following the presentation;
      • Do not read to the class—know your part of the presentation sufficiently well to be able to tell it to the class;
      • Each member’s contribution is to be unique, i.e., do not overlap or repeat what others in the group have stated;
      • Each member of the group is to turn in, after the presentation, a one-page typed outline of his/her individual part of the presentation with at least one reference cited.
      • It is required that each member of the group actively participate in the development and presentation of the topic. Group members not doing so will be penalized participation points. Group members have the right to refuse to allow or include those persons who are not present for planning sessions. Please report any group problems to the instructor as early as possible so that changes can be made if necessary. All members of the group are expected to be present on the day of the group’s presentation to the class. Group members absent on that day will receive a grade of zero.
    • Grading criteria:
      • Organization of thought, clarity, enthusiasm, creativity, and accuracy of information                                                         10 pts.
      • Submission of group member’s typed outline                  5 pts.
      • The Group Presentation                                                            10 pts.

    25 pts., max. x 4 = 100 pts. 

 

  • Jeopardy Questions:
    • Submit 6 jeopardy style questions prior to Exam #1
    • Questions should contain the following:
      • Written on 3 x 5 note card
      • Write question on one side and answer on reverse side
      • No card accepted after due date
      • 8 pts. per question card = 48 pts.

 

 

  • Reading Cards: For each chapter read from the assigned texts, give the following information on a 3 x 5 index card:
    • Your name in upper left corner on top line.
    • Book author’s last name in the middle of top line, e.g., Haber.
    • Chapter read in the upper right corner of first line.
    • Brief summary of chapter on the front of the card, and your reaction to the chapter on the back of the card. Be succinct and specific. If a quote from the chapter sums up your feelings, write it and give the page number.
    • 76 chapters, total, 152 pts possible.

 

  • In-class projects, video summaries, quizzes, etc., 200 pts. possible.

 

  • Opinion-Editorial (Op-Ed) Poster Display
    • To discuss, in an opinion-editorial format, an historical &/or current controversial scientific issue chosen from the course;
    • To identify and elaborate both sides of an historical &/or current controversial scientific issue;
    • To relate the cultural and/or historical aspects of the chosen topic to current social norms;
    • To include, at a minimum, 5 references formatted in an acceptable style (i.e., Harvard method, APA, MLA, etc.)
    • To include, at a minimum, 2 references from personal interviews of scientists, experts, and/or individuals having a connection to the topic.
    • To be formatted in the style of a newspaper Op-Ed Page with: a) two major sections being the Pro (in favor) essay and a Con (against) essay; b) side-bar articles/essays on related topics taken from or enhancing concepts found within the main essays; c) a summary/conclusion essay. This is to be on a poster display suitable for public viewing.

Grading:
 

The following areas will be used in determining the student’s over-all grade for this course.

  • All work will be scored on a point basis with the student’s grade being

calculated as a % of the total possible points assigned.

  • Breakdown of course assignments:
    • Unit Exams (2) @ 100 pts                                            200   pts.
    • Class participation & attendance*                                  50   pts.
    • Critical Analysis Paper* (2 @ 25 pts.)               50   pts.
    • Group Classroom Presentation*                                    100   pts.
    • Jeopardy Questions*    (6 @ 8 pts.)                              48   pts.
    • Reading cards* (76 @ 2 pts.)                                       152   pts.
    • In-class projects, quizzes, etc.                                       200   pts.
    • Op-Ed Poster presentation* (core assessment   200   pts.

Assignment)                             

                                                                        Total 1000  pts.

* See quidelines below.

  • Grading Scale:

A = 90.0% and higher

B = 80.0%

C = 70.0%

D = 60.0%

F = less than 60.0%

Exams: Exams will consist of multiple choice, matching, short answer, and essay questions.

Quizzes: Lecture quizzes will not be announced; questions will be multiple choice or one-word answer and will test on material from the previous few classes and text readings for the current class.

Assignments: Unless the instructor explicitly states otherwise, allpapers, lab write-ups, and any other out-of-class assignments must be typed (double-spaced, 12 point, left justified, in plain text) and stapled in the upper left corner. 

Make-ups: Emergencies involving missed exams and assignments will be handled on a case-by-case basis (see attendance policies, above).

Extra credit: There will be no extra credit for this course. Please do not ask for any.

Late Submission of Course Materials:
 

All assignments are due by the end of the class period on their due date. Late assignments will not be accepted and will receive a grade of zero. An absence from the session at which an assignment is due does not exempt one from the assignment due date; it is the student’s responsibility to get assignments to the professor on or before the due date, especially in the case of excused absences as mentioned, above. Emergency situations that can be documented will be handled on a case by case basis with the instructor. 

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
 

The classroom is a place for learning and intellectual development for all in attendance; therefore,

  • CD players, cellular phones, beepers, and other communication devices are not welcome where they may disrupt the learning process. Please be respectful of the professor and your peers by turning off such devices or not bringing them to the class. Disruption of class by one of these devices will result in that student being counted as absent for the day and removed from the class for the day. 
  • Students suspected to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol will be removed from the class and reported to the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs.
  • Disruptive behavior (as deemed by the instructor) during class time may result in removal of the student from the class for the day and the student will be considered absent. Multiple disruptions over the semester may lead to dismissal of the student from the class and a subsequent failing grade being given for the course.
  • Computers make writing and revising much easier and more productive. Students must recognize, though, that technology can also cause problems. Printers run out of ink and hard drives crash. Students must be responsible for planning ahead and meeting deadlines in spite of technology. Be sure to save copies of your work to disk, hard drive, and print out paper copies for backup purposes.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
 

DATE:

CLASS SESSION:

DISCUSSION

TOPICS & ACTIVITIES

ASSIGNMENT(S)

DUE

 

 

 

 

Wk. #1

 

Intro., syllabus, overview of course

 

“The Black Box” lab activity

ü   Lab answer sheets

Wk #2

 

Critical Thinking and Assessment Lecture

 

The World of Science and

The Nature of Science Lecture

Wk #3

 

The Scientific Method Lecture; Estimation, Measurement, etc.

 

M & M lab activity

ü   Lab answer sheets

Wk #4

 

Milestones in Science Lecture

ü   Haber reading cards (14)

 

“The Best Mind Since Einstein” or    Who is Richard Feynman?

ü   Video discussion questions page

ü   Presentation Teams?

 

Wk #5

10:30

The Day After Trinity, video

ü   Video discussion questions page

ü   1st Critical Analysis Paper

 

The Manhattan Project; Who does science? Has science made the world a better place?

ü   Video discussion questions page

Wk #6

 

Minorities in science, etc. Lecture

 

Work on Group Presentations

Wk#7

 

The Story of DNA video

ü   Video discussion questions page

 

Minorities in science, etc. Lecture cont’d. (if necessary)

Wk #8

 

Exam #1 Review

ü   Jeopardy cards due

 

Work on Group Presentations

ü   Watson reading cards (29)

 

Wk #9

 

Exam #1; 2nd Critical Analysis Paper assignment discussed

ü   Exam #1

 

Group Presentations

ü   Presenter’s outline

Wk #10

 

Group Presentations

ü   Presenter’s outline

 

Group Presentations

ü   Presenter’s outline

Wk #11

 

Lise Meitner video

ü   Video discussion questions page

 

Women in Science Lecture

Wk #12

 

Women in Science Lecture cont’d.    (if necessary)

ü   Perrone reading cards (19)

 

Hispanic Scientists Lecture

 

Wk #13

 

Asian Scientists & Innovators Lecture

ü   2nd Critical Analysis Paper due

 

Other Minority Contributions Lecture

Wk #14

 

Mayan & North American Indian Contributions to Science Lecture

 

TBA

Wk #15

 

Ethics & Science

 

TBA

ü   Weatherford reading cards (14)

Wk #16

 

Exam #2

ü   Exam #2

 

Course Evaluation;

post-course assessment

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2008-2009 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2008-2009 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2008-2009 Undergraduate Catalog Page 89-90

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
In the Conclusion essay, identify and discuss 4 (or more if others are apparent) of the following assignment issues.
-briefly summarize both sides of the argument
-critically evaluate the resources used
-evaluate the validity of the science
-Discuss the cultural connections within the controversy 
In the Conclusion essay, identify and discuss a min. of 3 of the following assignment issues.
-briefly summarize both sides of the argument
-critically evaluate the resources used
-evaluate the validity of the science
-Discuss the cultural connections within the controversy 
In the Conclusion essay, identify and discuss 1-2 of the following assignment issues.
-briefly summarize both sides of the argument
-critically evaluate the resources used
-evaluate the validity of the science
-Discuss the cultural connections within the controversy 
No assignment issues identified or discussed. 
Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
6 or more sources referenced 5 sources referenced (min. 3 books &/or journals; 2 internet) 1-4 sources referenced No sources referenced. 
Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Identify and discuss 6 or more assignment issues, including but not limited to:
-Identify the issue
-Identify the controversial nature of the issue
-Explain the pros & cons of the issue
-Compare/contrast the historical & current natures of the issue
-Relate the scientific relevance of the issue 
Identify and discuss 3-5 assignment issues, including but not limited to:
-Identify the issue
-Identify the controversial nature of the issue
-Explain the pros & cons of the issue
-Compare/contrast the historical & current natures of the issue
-Relate the scientific relevance of the issue 
Identify and discuss 1-2 assignment issues, including but not limited to:
-Identify the issue
-Identify the controversial nature of the issue
-Explain the pros & cons of the issue
-Compare/contrast the historical & current natures of the issue
-Relate the scientific relevance of the issue 
No assignment issues identified or discussed. 
Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Effectively incorporates 6 or more sources to support thesis. Effectively incorporates 3-5 sources to support thesis. Effectively incorporates 3-5 sources to support thesis. Effectively incorporates 3-5 sources to support thesis. 
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
No terminology/factual errors noted. 1-3 terminology/factual errors. 4-5 terminology/factual errors. 6 or more terminology/factual errors. 
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
No errors in writing conventions.
-Harvard Method of citation, -references,
-written in third person,
-past tense,
-correct spelling, and grammar 
1 to 3 errors in writing conventions.
-Harvard Method of citation,
-references,
-written in third person,
-past tense,
-correct spelling, and grammar 
4-6 errors in writing conventions.
-Harvard Method of citation,
-references,
-written in third person,
-past tense,
-correct spelling, and grammar. 
7 or more errors in writing conventions.
-Harvard Method of citation,
-references,
-written in third person,
-past tense,
-correct spelling, and grammar. 
Values Literacy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Outcomes
3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Demonstrates mastery of 3 or more of the following components of the Values literacy:
-Understanding of the importance of value concerns in human life, and the ability to distinguish them from factual matters;
-Recognition of the major ways proposed for resolving value questions, and the ability to evaluate them and use them where appropriate;
-Appreciation of the diversity of value systems and their interconnection with the cultures in which they are found, yet openness to the possibility that there may be common goals and principles that can serve as the basis for intercultural judgments;
-Acquisition of tools for analyzing value questions, and acquisition of a set of personal values that are continually held up for review even as one tries to live by them. 
Demonstrates mastery of 2 of the following components of the Values literacy:
-Understanding of the importance of value concerns in human life, and the ability to distinguish them from factual matters;
-Recognition of the major ways proposed for resolving value questions, and the ability to evaluate them and use them where appropriate;
-Appreciation of the diversity of value systems and their interconnection with the cultures in which they are found, yet openness to the possibility that there may be common goals and principles that can serve as the basis for intercultural judgments;
-Acquisition of tools for analyzing value questions, and acquisition of a set of personal values that are continually held up for review even as one tries to live by them. 
Demonstrates mastery of one of the following components of the Values literacy:
§9 Understanding of the importance of value concerns in human life, and the ability to distinguish them from factual matters;
§10 Recognition of the major ways proposed for resolving value questions, and the ability to evaluate them and use them where appropriate;
§11 Appreciation of the diversity of value systems and their interconnection with the cultures in which they are found, yet openness to the possibility that there may be common goals and principles that can serve as the basis for intercultural judgments;
§12 Acquisition of tools for analyzing value questions, and acquisition of a set of personal values that are continually held up for review even as one tries to live by them.
 
No evidence of mastery of the components of the Values literacy. 
Science Literacy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Outcomes
1,3,4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Demonstrates mastery of 3 or more of the following components of the Science literacy:
-Understanding of the nature and role of scientific evidence in the pursuit of knowledge;
-Recognition of the importance of the scientific method of argument and modeling process;
-Appreciation of the origins of scientific inquiry and method and seeing their continuing presence in the mutual interaction between human society and its physical environment;
-Acquisition of tools for successful involvement in scientific pursuits of the scientific community.
 
Demonstrates mastery of 2 of the following components of the Science literacy:
-Understanding of the nature and role of scientific evidence in the pursuit of knowledge;
-Recognition of the importance of the scientific method of argument and modeling process;
-Appreciation of the origins of scientific inquiry and method and seeing their continuing presence in the mutual interaction between human society and its physical environment;
-Acquisition of tools for successful involvement in scientific pursuits of the scientific community.
 
Demonstrates mastery of one of the following components of the Science literacy:
-Understanding of the nature and role of scientific evidence in the pursuit of knowledge;
-Recognition of the importance of the scientific method of argument and modeling process;
-Appreciation of the origins of scientific inquiry and method and seeing their continuing presence in the mutual interaction between human society and its physical environment;
-Acquisition of tools for successful involvement in scientific pursuits of the scientific community. 
No evidence of mastery of the components of the Science literacy. 

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Last Updated:8/15/2008 1:28:18 PM