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ED 595 Play in Early Child Curriculum
Choi, Dong Hwa


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Course

ED 595 Play in Early Child Curriculum

Semester

S1P 2010 EDD

Faculty

Choi, Dong Hwa

Title

Associate Professor

Degrees/Certificates

Ph. D

Office Location

911 Main, Suite 819, Kansas City, MO 64105

Daytime Phone

816-559-5604

Other Phone

816-820-7950

E-Mail

dong.choi@park.edu

Class Days

--T----

Class Time

5:00 - 9:30 PM

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:
Primary Classrooms: Opportunities for school-sanctioned play are rare in most primary settings. These ethnographic studies conducted by a classroom teacher (Gallas) or in collaboration with the teacher (Dyson) explore the spaces that children appropriate for their representations of popular culture, gender, identity, and social relationships, including writing, conversations, and outdoor play.

*Dyson, A. H. (2003). The brothers and sisters learn to write: Popular literacies in childhood and school culture. NY: Teachers College Press.

*Gallas, K. (1998). “Sometimes I can be anything:” Power, gender, and identity in a primary classroom. NY: Teachers College Press.

PreK and Kindergarten Classrooms: While professional policy statements promote play as the centerpiece of the early childhood curriculum, opportunities for child-initiated play are being compromised by an increasingly academic focus for many children in publicly funded PreK programs, and relegated to the peripheries of the daily life of the kindergarten classroom. These readings provide examples of teacher researchers attempting to understand the complexities of play, appreciate the intentions of children, and examine the roles of teachers.

*Perry, J. P. (2001). Outdoor play: Teaching strategies with young children. NY: Teachers College Press.

*Reynolds, G., & Jones, E. (1997). Master players: Learning from children at play. NY: Teachers College Press.

Additional Resources:
Historical and Cultural Contexts of Play:
Barnes, D. R. (1998). Play in historical contexts. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 5-13) NY: Garland

King, N. R. (1992). The impact of context on the play of young children. In Kessler, S., & B. B. Swadener (Eds.). Reconceptualizing the early childhood curriculum: Beginning the dialogue. (pp. 43-61). NY: Teachers College Press.

Roopnarine, J. L., Lasker, J., Sacks, M., & Stores, M. (1998). The cultural contexts of children’s play. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 194-219). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Tobin, J. J, Wu, D. Y. H., & Davidson, D. H. (1989). Preschool in three cultures. (pp. 188-221). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Social Contexts of Play in U.S. Settings
Dargan, A., & Zeitlin, S. (1998). City play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 219-224) NY: Garland

Fein, G. G. & Wiltz, N. W. (1998). Play as children see it. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 37-49) NY: Garland

Rivkin, M. S. (1998). Children’s outdoor play: An endangered activity. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 225-231) NY: Garland

Trawick-Smith, J. (1998). School-based play and social interactions. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 241-247) NY: Garland

Theories and Categories of Play
DeVries, R. (1998). Games with rules. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 409-415) NY: Garland

Kavanaugh, R. D., & Engel, S. (1998). The development of pretense and narrative in early childhood. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 80-99). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Monighan Nourot, P. (1998). Sociodramatic play: Pretending together. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 378-391). NY: Garland

Pelligrini, A. D. (1998). Rough-and-tumble play from childhood through adolescence. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 401-408). NY: Garland

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). The role of play in development. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (pp. 92-104). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Play and the Early Childhood Curriculum: Examining Assumptions The following readings are intended to provoke early childhood educators to critically examine assumptions about definitions, contexts, and approaches to play in the curriculum.

Canella, G. S. & Viruru, R. (1997). Privileging child-centered play-based instruction. In G. S. Cannella. Deconstructing early childhood education: Social justice and revolution. (pp. 117-136). NY: Peter Lang.

Henry, A. (1996). Five black women teachers critique child-centered pedagogy: Possibilities and limitations of oppositional standpoints. Curriculum Inquiry, 26, 363-384.

Hyun, E. (1998). Culture and development in children’s play. In E. Hyun. Making sense of developmentally and culturally appropriate practice (DCAP) in early childhood education. (pp. 15-30). NY: Peter Lang

Play and Literacy Development
Branscombe, N. A., & Taylor, J. B. (2000). “It would be good as Snow White: Play and prosody. In K. A. Roskos & J. F. Christie (Eds.) Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple purposes. (pp. 169-188). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hall, N. (2000). Literacy, play, and authentic experience. In K. A. Roskos & J. F. Christie (Eds.) Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple purposes. (pp. 189-204). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Roskos, K., & Neuman, S. B. (1998). Play an opportunity for literacy. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 100-115). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Issues in Contemporary U.S. Society
Espinoza, L. (1997). Personal dimensions of leadership. In S. L. Kagan & B. T. Bowman (Eds.) Leadership in early care and education. (pp. 97-102). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Guddemi, M., Jambor, T., Moore, R. (1998). Advocacy for the child’s right to play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 519-529). NY: Garland.

Jambor, T. (1998). Challenge and risk-taking in play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 319-323). NY: Garland

Levin, D. (1998). Play with violence: Understanding and responding effectively. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 348-356). NY: Garland

Provenzo, E. R., Jr. (1998). Electronically mediated playscapes. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 513-518). NY: Garland

Silvern, S. B. (1998). Educational implications of play with computers. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 530-536). NY: Garland

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Course Description:
ED595 Play in the Early Childhood Curriculum:An in-depth exploration of play as an integralcomponent of early learning. Emphasis is placed on the roles of the teacher in observing play, developing and refining teaching strategies that support and extend childrens play, and advocating for play in the early childhood curriculum.

Educational Philosophy:
Developing as a teacher is a complex process that occurs most effectively in learning communities that provide rich opportunities for inquiry and reflection, and that cultivate a sense of curiosity, integrity, social justice, and professionalism.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Conduct in-depth studies of play in early childhood settings.
  2. Analyze the contributions of play to children's development.
  3. Examine and apply various analytical models for understanding the complexity of play.
  4. Develop strategies for effectively observing, supporting, and extending children's play.
  5. Communicate a child's progress to families.
  6. Critically review issues related to the influence of popular culture and violence in play.
  7. Advocate for the central role of play in the early childhood curriculum.


Core Assessment:

Class Assessment:
 

I. Weekly Reflection (Due: Jan 19, Jan 26, Feb 2, Feb 9, Feb 16, Feb 23) ( 13 pts x 6= 78 pts)

The purpose of the weekly reflection is to encourage a synthesis of the thinking of various authors and to promote a reflective stance on the part of the reader. Readings should be specifically referenced with a well-developed discussion of the provocations the authors are providing to your own thinking. Journals should be submitted weekly for a total of five entries for the session. (NAEYC Standards 1, 3, 4, 5; Professional Tools 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).

II. Microanalysis of Children’s Play and Presentations (Core Assignment) (Due: Jan 26, Feb 9, Feb 23) ( 30 pts x 3= 90 pts)

The purpose of the microanalysis of children’s play is to understand how children’s play contributes to their developments. Microanalysis of children’s play behaviors will lead teachers to investigate how children set up their theories and strategies, and solve problems in a play situation. By analyzing children’s play behaviors, and their interaction with peers and teachers in a play situation, you will learn roles and dynamics of children’s play which contributes to their development. Also, the microanalysis will provide an opportunity for teachers to examine their scaffolding strategies and to investigate ways of providing effective scaffolding for maximizing children’s learning through play.

  1. Videotape a child(ren)’s play behavior(s) and teacher(s)’ scaffolding strategies or interactions with the child(ren) about 3-5 minutes. You can videotape your interaction or scaffolding with children or other teachers’ interaction or scaffolding with children. Either case is fine.
  1. Analyze your video clip as follows.
    • Analyze the child(ren)’s behaviors in terms of their own theories, reasoning, problem-solving strategies, social skills, peer relationships, feelings, fine or gross motor skills, or play types. Do not miss any subtle verbal or non-verbal behaviors videotaped. In order to analyze the children’s behaviors, watch the video clip repeatedly. Discuss the following questions: Why do(es) the child(ren) demonstrate(s) the behaviors in the play situation? What makes the child(ren) behave that way? Do(es) the child(ren) fully understand an operating logic of a certain toy or play material? Do(es) the child(ren) fully understand what the teacher asks to do? Do(es) the child(ren) consider others’ point of views? Of course, you can analyze your child(ren)’s behavior(s) from your own perspectives by asking other questions that are not listed above.
    • Analyze the teachers’ scaffolding strategies in the play situation. Watch the video clip repeatedly. Find out the teacher(s)’ scaffolding strategies, the teachers’ assumptions of the children’s logics, social skills, reasoning, feelings, or physical abilities. Also, analyze teacher(s)’verbal or non-verbal interaction with the child(ren). Discuss the following questions: Why does the teacher use a particular scaffolding strategy? What does the teacher encourage the child to achieve in that play situation? What is the teacher’s reasoning in the play situation?
    • Analyze and evaluate the child(ren)’s learning in the play situation. After you analyze the play scene, evaluate what the child(ren) learn(s). How does the play episode contribute to the child(ren)’s development in what aspects? How does this play episode facilitate children’s problem-solving abilities? How does this play episode facilitate the child(ren)’s learning according to Piaget’s classification of knowledge (i.e., physical knowledge, logical-mathematical knowledge, and social knowledge)? Can you observe the child(ren)’s learning processes in terms of Piaget’s theory (i.e., assimilation, accommodation, cognitive conflicts, and equilibrium)?
    • Evaluate the teachers’ scaffolding strategies in terms of effectiveness. Does the teacher use appropriate scaffolding strategies in the play situation and why? Does the teacher over-direct or misdirect the child(ren)’s play episode and why? How could you use different strategies in the play situation and why? How does the teacher’s scaffolding contribute to children’s development in what aspects? Does the teacher understand the child(ren)’s previous learning experience and understanding level? Does this teacher collaboratively construct ZPD with the child(ren)?

*** Discuss the four parts of the assignment in details. Microanalysis of children’s behavior and teachers’ scaffolding strategies in details will give you ideas how children’s play can contribute to their learning. Do NOT discuss children’s learning without pointing out the actual contents of your video clip. That means that your discussion of children’s behaviors and teachers’ scaffolding should be discussed based upon your observation. General assumptions of how children’s play contributes to their development without discussing the detailed information of analysis of children’s behaviors does not provide any insight to us.  

** The 4 components of project: 2-3 pages, double space, 12 font letter

** APA style, 2-3 references

** You can use this website to study about microanalysis of children’s behaviors.--- http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v1n2/forman.html

 

 

III. PowerPoint presentation (Due: Feb 2) (28 pts)

  1. Prepare a Powerpoint presentation regarding a topic related to children’s play. Your selection of the topic can be based on your interests, concerns, or current issues. For example, many teachers are interested in how to use recycled materials for children’s play and learning. You can prepare your presentation on this topic using visual aids (pictures, YouTube), professional magazines, newspapers, or websites related to your topic. I would suggest finding a topic which can be practically used in actual ECE classrooms.
  2. No written paper is required.
  3. Prepare 15-20 slides.
  4. Prepare the presentation based on the rubric.

IV. Advocacy Plan (Due: Mar 2) (21 pts)

1.                  After you analyze children’s play behaviors and teachers’ scaffolding strategies, what do you learn about children’s play? Do you believe that children’s play contributes to their development, and in what aspects, and why?

2.                  Describe how your school, school principal, school district, and parents view children’s play as a curriculum or children’s learning processes. While professional policy statements promote play as the centerpiece of the early childhood curriculum, opportunities for child-initiated play are being compromised by an increasingly academic focus for many children in publicly funded PreK programs, and relegated to the peripheries of the daily life of the kindergarten classroom. For example, NCLB or standard-based learning curriculum may affect your classroom to integrate children’s play into children’s learning processes. Based upon your learnings and the needs of your teaching community, develop a strategy for taking a leadership role in advocating for play and/or teacher research about play in children’s learning. This project may include but not be limited to

·         A plan for a presentation/workshop for families, coworkers

·         A plan for a well-developed strategy for working with administrators.

Discuss what contents, message, and plan you would deliver to children’s families, coworkers, or school administrators. Your plan should be presented in the form of a detailed plan including rationale and strategies. (2-3 pages, double space, 12 font letter)

** APA style, 2-3 references

Grading:
 

A=100-90%

B=89-80%

      C=79-70%

Late Submission of Course Materials:
 

·   All assignments should be typed. No handwritten assignment will be accepted.

·   All assignments must be turned in on the dates indicated, unless date is changed by instructor.

·   Late assignments will result in 20% reduction of the student’s point total for that assignment.

·   When student submits assignments after due date, you will have one more opportunity to submit the assignments. You can submit the assignment one week after the due date. That means when we meet in class in the following week of the due date, you can submit the assignment. After the second opportunity is passed, I will NOT accept any late submission.

·   Any absence does not excuse students’ responsibility to get assignments turned in on or before due day.

·   Extreme emergency absences and/or due date situation will be handled case by case at the instructor’s discretion. Instructor’s decision is final. Keep instructor informed of any potential personal situations that might necessitate an absence. 

·   The above procedures and calendar (given in class) for this course are tentative and subject to change in the event of extenuating circumstances. I reserve the right and responsibility to evaluate the quality of your work. Completion of an assignment does not guarantee the awarding of all possible points.

·   If a student is absent for any reason, the student is still responsible for the information discussed in class that day.

·   For your own protection, always save a copy of any assignment you complete.

 

Classroom Rules of Conduct:



 

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
 

Week 1

Jan 12: Historical and Cultural Contexts of Play


*Barnes, D. R. (1998). Play in historical contexts. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 5-13) NY: Garland

*King, N. R. (1992). The impact of context on the play of young children. In Kessler, S., & B. B. Swadener (Eds.). Reconceptualizing the early childhood curriculum: Beginning the dialogue. (pp. 43-61). NY: Teachers College Press

*Roopnarine, J. L., Lasker, J., Sacks, M., & Stores, M. (1998). The cultural contexts of children’s play. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 194-219). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

*Tobin, J. J, Wu, D. Y. H., & Davidson, D. H. (1989). Preschool in three cultures. (pp. 188-221). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Week 2

Jan 19: Theories and Categories of Play

*DeVries, R. (1998). Games with rules. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 409-415) NY: Garland

*Kavanaugh, R. D., & Engel, S. (1998). The development of pretense and narrative in early childhood. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 80-99). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

*Monighan Nourot, P. (1998). Sociodramatic play: Pretending together. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 378-391). NY: Garland

*Pelligrini, A. D. (1998). Rough-and-tumble play from childhood through adolescence. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 401-408). NY: Garland

*Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). The role of play in development. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (pp. 92-104). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Week 3

Jan 26: Social Contexts of Play in U.S. Settings


*
Dargan, A., & Zeitlin, S. (1998). City play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 219-224) NY: Garland

*Fein, G. G. & Wiltz, N. W. (1998). Play as children see it. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 37-49) NY: Garland

*Rivkin, M. S. (1998). Children’s outdoor play: An endangered activity. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 225-231) NY: Garland

*Trawick-Smith, J. (1998). School-based play and social interactions. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 241-247) NY: Garland
Weekly Journal


Week 4

Feb 2: Teacher Researchers

 

PreK & K Teachers

*Reynolds, G., & Jones, E. (1997). Master players: Learning from children at play. NY: Teachers College Press.

 

Primary Teachers

*Dyson, A. H. (2003). The brothers and sisters learn to write: Popular literacies in childhood and school culture. NY: Teachers College Press.

Week 5

Feb 9: Teacher Researchers:


PreK & K Teachers:
Perry, J. P. (2001). Outdoor play: Teaching strategies with young children. NY: Teachers College Press.

 

Primary Teachers:
Gallas, K. (1998). “Sometimes I can be anything:” Power, gender, and identity in a primary classroom. NY: Teachers College Press.

Week 6

Feb 16: Play and the Early Childhood Curriculum-- Examining Assumptions The following readings are intended to provoke early childhood educators to revisit assumptions about definitions, contexts, and approaches to play.

*Canella, G. S. & Viruru, R. (1997). Privileging child-centered play-based instruction. In G. S. Cannella. Deconstructing early childhood education: Social justice and revolution. (pp. 117-136). NY: Peter Lang.

*Henry, A. (1996). Five black women teachers critique child-centered pedagogy: Possibilities and limitations of oppositional standpoints. Curriculum Inquiry, 26, 363-384.

*Hyun, E. (1998). Culture and development in children’s play. In E. Hyun. Making sense of developmentally and culturally appropriate practice (DCAP) in early childhood education. (pp. 15-30). NY: Peter Lang

*Espinoza, L. (1997). Personal dimensions of leadership. In S. L. Kagan & B. T. Bowman (Eds.) Leadership in early care and education. (pp. 97-102). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Week 7

Feb 23: Play and Literacy Development
*Branscombe, N. A., & Taylor, J. B. (2000). “It would be good as Snow White: Play and prosody. In K. A. Roskos & J. F. Christie (Eds.) Play and literacy in early childhood:
Research from multiple purposes. (pp. 169-188). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

*Hall, N. (2000). Literacy, play, and authentic experience. In K. A. Roskos & J. F. Christie (Eds.) Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple purposes. (pp. 189-204). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

*Roskos, K., & Neuman, S. B. (1998). Play an opportunity for literacy. In. O.N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.) Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. (p. 100-115). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.


Week 8
March 2: Issues in Contemporary U.S. Society


*
Guddemi, M., Jambor, T., Moore, R. (1998). Advocacy for the child’s right to play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 519-529). NY: Garland

*Jambor, T. (1998). Challenge and risk-taking in play. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 319-323). NY: Garland

*Levin, D. (1998). Play with violence: Understanding and responding effectively. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 348-356). NY: Garland

*Provenzo, E. R., Jr. (1998). Electronically mediated playscapes. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 513-518). NY: Garland

*Silvern, S. B. (1998). Educational implications of play with computers. In D. P. Fromberg & D. Bergen (Eds.) Play from birth to twelve and beyond: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings. (pp. 530-536). NY: Garland

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