SO315 Minority Group Relations

for S2D 2005

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Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

CourseSO 315 Minority Group Relations DA
FacultyVaughan, Margaret A.Mortensen
TitleAdjunct Faculty of Sociology
Degrees/CertificatesPh.D. American Indian Studies, 2004  University of Arizona
M.A. American Indian Studies, 1998  University of Arizona
B.A. Anthropology, 1994 University of Maine
Office LocationNot Applicable
Office HoursNot Applicable
Daytime PhoneLeave a message at Park University Office: 520-748-8266
Other PhoneLeave a message at Park University Office: 520-748-8266
Semester DatesMarch 21 to May 15, 2005
Class Days--T-R--
Class Time4:45 - 7:25 PM
Credit Hours3

The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race, Sex, and Gender, Social Class, and Sexual Orientation, 3/e 2000 authored by Karen E. Rosenblum and Toni-Michelle C. Travis

Additional readings will be distributed in class.

Textbooks can be purchased though the MBS bookstore

Additional Resources:
These are some of the sources for the instructor's class lectures/activities and are suggestions (not required) for students' further reading.  The first web address links to the students' supplemental materials for the class textbook.  

Alland, A., Jr. (2002). Race in mind: race, IQ, and other racisms. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Baldwin, N. (2001). Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate. New York: PublicAffairs.

Bayer, R. H., (Ed.).(2003).  Race and ethnicity in America: A concise history. New York: Columbia University Press.

Berger, A. A. (1995). Cultural criticism: A primer of key concepts. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Oxford, MA: Blackwell.

Corcos, A. F. (1997). The myth of human races. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Corker, M., & French, S. (1999). Disability discourse. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Cornell, S., & Hartmann, D. (1998). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.

Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (2000). Critical race theory: The cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Deming, A. H., & Savoy, L. E. (2002). The colors of nature: Culture, identity, and the natural world. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed editions.

Desmond, J. C. (1999). Staging tourism: Bodies on display from Waikiki to sea world. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Frederickson, G. M. (2002). Racism: A short history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Goldberger, N. R., & Veroff, J. B. (1995). The culture and psychology reader. New York: New York University Press.

Gordon, A. F., & Newfield, C. (1996). Mapping multiculturalism. Minneapolis & London: University of Minnesota Press.

Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. NY: Norton.

Harmon, A. (1998). Indians in the making: Ethnic relations and Indian identities around Puget Sound.  Berkeley, Ca:  University of California Press.

hooks, b. (1989). Talking back: Thinking feminist, thinking black. Boston, MA:  South End Press.

Huhndorf, S. M. (2001). Going native: Indians in the American cultural imagination. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press.

Jacoby, K. (2001). Crimes against nature: Squatters, poachers, thieves, and the hidden history of American conservation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jewell, K. Sue (1993). From mammy to Miss America and beyond: Cultural images and the shaping of U.S. policy. New York: Routledge.

Markovitz, J. (2004). Legacies of lynching: Racial violence and memory. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.

Martinot, S. (2003).  The rule of racialization: Class, identity, governance. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Nabakov, P., ed. (1991). Native American testimony: A chronicle of Indian-White relations from Prophecy to the Present. 1492-1992. New York: Penguin Books.

Nebelkopf, E., & Phillips, M., (Eds.). (2004)Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Orbe, M. P. (1998). Constructing Co-cultural theory: An explication of culture, power, and communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Peña, D. G. (1998). Chicano culture, ecology, politics: Subversive Kin. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

Prasad, P. (1997). The organizational melting pot: Dilemmas of workplace diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Rochlin, J. M. (1997). Race and class on campus: Conversations with Ricardo's Daughter. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.  

Rothenberg, P.S. (2001). Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study (5th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers.

Shipler, D. K. (2005). The working poor: Invisible in America. New York: Vintage Books.

Stedman, R. W. (1982). Shadows of the Indian: Stereotypes in American Culture. Norman & London: University of Oklahoma.

Steinhorn, L., & Diggs-Bown, B. (2000). By the color of our skin: The illusion of integration and the reality of race. New York: Plume.

Temple-Raston, D. (2002). A death in Texas: A story of race, murder, and a small town's struggle for redemption.  New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Stokes, C., Melendez, T., Rhodes-Reed, G.(Eds.). (2001). Race in 21st century America. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Takaki, R.(Ed.). (1994). From different shores: Perspectives on race and ethnicity in America.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Takaki, R. (1998). Strangers from a different shore: A history of Asian Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Tucker, W. H. (1994). The science and politics of racial research. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2003). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Wood, P. (2003). Diversity: The invention of a concept. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books.  

Zellner, W. W. (2001). Extraordinary groups: An examination of unconventional lifestyles. New York: Worth Publishers.

Course Description:
An examination of the patterns and causes of prejudice and discrimination.  Surveys the history and current status of groups in American society which have been subjected to discrimination based on race, ethnicity, sex or religion.  3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
The university instructor is responsible for class content, maintaining the foci of the class, and ensuring the representation of a diversity of viewpoints.  I view my role to be a facilitator, sensitive to how everything from seating styles to choice of reading materials affects the classroom atmosphere.  I use a combination of methods in the classroom for different student learning styles, and I utilize collaborative learning strategies.  I believe that critical thinking skills are crucial to student success.  It is also important to guide students toward becoming “expert learners” (possessing knowledge of how to learn).  Among other sources, I find first-person accounts useful for teaching ethnic studies because these accounts humanize events, ideas, and issues.  From my viewpoint, teaching is a collaborative and scholarly endeavor.

Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this course, students should be able to:

Define “minority” using the sociological definition.

Define “institutional racism,” “individual racism,” and other types of racism and how racism relates to the concept of power.

Define “ethnic” and explain multiple ways “ethnicities” are expressed.

Explain one key controversy in the U.S. concerning life in a multicultural setting.

Provide examples of how the United States was multicultural and multi-ethnic in the Pre-Columbian period, Early America, and throughout the modern and postmodern era.

Describe the social construction of identity and understand why identities are difficult to compartmentalize.

Understand the essentialist and constructionist schools and how they differ.

Identify discrimination/racism/sexism/ableism/antisemitism/religious intolerance/prejudice in many social settings of the past and present.  Give concrete examples of discrimination/racism/ sexism/ableism/antisemitism/religious intolerance/ prejudice and specific remedies.

Describe how minority groups resist oppression and victimhood with multiple strategies.

View events from minority perspectives.

Explain why “race” is a controversial concept.

Recognize stereotypes used to depict certain minority groups and the purposes such typecasting serves.

Meaningfully utilize the key terms and themes that emerge from this course as you encounter discourses about racism, multiculturalism, and inequalities in the U.S.

Course Assessment:
Assessments of this course will be done through completion of collaborative group exercises, class discussion, case studies, regular analytic and responsive writing assignments, and a midterm and cumulative final. These course assessments will test the conceptual and applied understandings gained from lectures, readings, inside- and outside-class assignments, and collaborative group work.  As the class progresses, the syllabus (topics and readings) may be changed by the instructor.

25 points for the learning journal (includes writings from homework, group work, and class activities and sharing ideas in class/group work) Note that individual collaborative group members will be graded as individuals; group grades will not be given

25 points two typed short papers and presentations

25 points  take-home midterm exam (essay, concept mapping, and multiple choice questions)

25 points in-class final exam (essay, short answer, matching, concept mapping, multiple choice, and true or false questions)

These assignments are graded equally because the papers and the learning journal are work-intensive and help prepare students for the exams. The students will not have to worry about one portion of the class over another portion.

Late Submission of Course Materials:
I will accept late course materials up until the end of an assignment's particular topic unit (topic units are outlined in the Course Topic section) as long as the student notifies me that the assignments are “in-progress” with exception to class presentations.  If a student is required to present in class and he or she has not finished the assignment than the student should first share beginning thoughts on the assigned subject then, if appropriate, open the topic up for class discussion.  If a student is habitually late with work (more than two assignments) then the instructor will subtract 7 points off each late assignment for each day the assignment is late.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
-   Students are to come prepared to class with an open mind to new viewpoints and new experiences, and be willing to participate in class discussions. (Participation is verbal and non-verbal including providing direct answers, thinking out loud to arrive at an answer, and active listening.)
- Students are not required to agree with the authors, other students, or the instructor.  Students are required to understand course content, carefully read and listen, and communicate disagreement with thoughtful and reasoned arguments in a respectful manner.
- Never insult or verbally disparage other students or the instructor.  Thoughtfully disagree by attempting to begin your point by supporting or building on a point of the previous participant.
- Experiences (personal stories) shared during class by class participants should not be divulged to anyone outside of the class.  

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
* Indicates that the reading is not in the textbook and will be distributed in class or may be accessed through the worldwide web.  

March 22     Unit One: Defining Difference
Syllabus overview and class guidelines
Assignments and learning journal guidelines distributed
Overview of working in groups
Learning strategies for this class

Introduction to key concepts:  master statuses, minority, race, ethnicity, difference, ethnocentrism, culture, gender, stigma
The complex intersections of identity

March 24
The concepts of “race,” racism, and racialized groups
Etiologies of prejudice and discrimination
Unmarked and marked categories
Institutional, structural, scientific, environmental, and    individual racism
The “new” racism

The Meaning of Difference, “Framework Essay Constructing Categories of Difference” pp. 2-37
Reading 1 “Who is Black? One Nation's Definition” by F. James Davis pp. 38-46
Personal account: “A Wonderful Opportunity” by R.M.A. p. 46
Reading 2 “Race Censuses, and Citizenship” by Melissa Nobles pp. 47-59
Personal account: “Shopping with a Friend” by R. Ambrose p. 72
Personal account: “I Thought my Race was Invisible” by S. H. Pereira p. 91

Quotation: “[R]aces are not rocks, they are plastics.” p. 171 Ian F. Haney López “The Social Construction of Race” In Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge 2nd. ed. R. Delagado & J. Stefanic, eds., Philadelphia: Temple University.

March 29
The concept of “race” continued
The concept of ethnicity, panethnicity, and multiethnicity
Ethnicity theories
Expressions of ethnic identity
Consuming ethnicity/multiculturalism

Reading 8: “Whiteness as ‘Unmarked' Cultural Category” by R. Frankenberg pp. 92-98
Reading 25: “Diversity and Its Discontents” by A. Madrid pp. 233-240
*“Including Jews in Multiculturalism” by P. F. Langman pp.169-177
*“The Search for Indian” by M. Lee and J. Lee pp. 157-171
*(skim) “A Bill of Rights for Racially Mixed People” by M. P. P. Root pp. 120-126

March 31


Brief history of racialized and ethnic groups in the U.S.
Indigenous Peoples
Voluntary Immigrants
Involuntary Immigrants

Reading 6: La Raza and the Melting Pot by C. A. Fernández pp. 73-81
Reading 7: “Asian American Panethnicity” by Y. L. Espiritu pp. 81-91
Reading 25 “The Day of Remembrance Ceremony” by L. Minatoya pp. 232-233
Reading 36 “At a Slaughter House, Some Things Never Die” by C.  LeDuff pp. 290-300
*“The Life Story of a Southern White Woman” (1904) pp. 208-216
*“The Life Story of a Southern Colored Woman” (1904) pp. 217-224
*Letters from Mexican immigrants
*Runaway slave advertisements
*“Songs of Gold Mountain” (poem)
* “How Coyote Made the World” Pit River Creation Story pp. 21-22

Quotation: “The most important thing in my life occurred before I was born.” Melvin Jules Kiot, Sarah Lawrence College

April 5 Unit 2 Experiencing Difference
Brief history of racialized and ethnic groups, continued
Resisting and coping with racism and ethnocentrism in the U.S.
The perception gap
The “diversity management model” in the workplace

Framework Essay (skim) pp. 176-202
Reading 23: “Please Ask me, Who, not ‘What' I am” by J. Lite pp. 221-222
Personal account: “Going Home” by K. Haynes p. 239
*“White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” by P. M. McIntosh pp. 165-169
*“The Ethics of Living Jim Crow: An Autobiographical Sketch” by R. Wright pp. 23-32
*“The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man” by J. W. Johnson pp. 453-456

April 7
Gender in the United States
The exclusion of racialized groups in some forms of feminism
Gender and hate groups
Sexual Harassment/Inequality in school/workplace
Sex, gender, and popular culture
In-class viewing of “To the Contrary” PBS

*Website (skim) “The Chilly Climate:   How Men and Women are Treated Differently in Classrooms and at Work”
Reading 45 “Sex, Race, and Ethnic Inequality in the United States Work Places” by B. F. Reskin and I. Padavic pp. 420-436
Personal account: “Just Something You Did as a Man” by F. Hernandez p. 470
*“Rethinking Women's Biology” by R. Hubbard pp. 52-53
*“Ah, Ya Throw Like a Girl” by M. Messner pp. 46-48
*Website (skim) The Gender Ads Project

April 12
Disability in the United States

Reading 21 “ ‘Can You See the Rainbow?':  The Roots of Denial” by S. French pp. 208-214
Personal account: “ I am Legally Blind” by B. O. Gordon p. 215
Reading 22 “How Long Must We Wait?' pp. 216-221

April 14
Socioeconomic class discrimination/racism/sexism

Reading 13 “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness” by G. Lipsitz pp. 398-409
Personal account: “Just Like my Mama Said” by A. McNeill p. 420
Reading 32 “Of Race and Risk” by R. J. Williams pp. 271-273
Reading 34: “All Soul's Night” M. P. MacDonald pp. 276-280
Reading 35 “A Question of Class” by D. Allison pp. 280-288
Reading 44 “Strangers among Us” by R. Suro pp. 410-419
Personal account: “The Moment of Visibility” by R. B. Pascarell p. 289

April 19
Religious minorities in the United States

*Table: “Religious Groups and Their Salient Features”

Midterm take-home distributed and due April 26

April 21 Unit 3 Racialized and ethnic minority social inequality, equality, and remedies
Statistics on social inequality in the U.S.
Dialogues on integration, affirmative action and “color-blind”  discourses

Framework Essay (skim) pp. 308-324
Reading 30 “Driving While Black” by J. Lamberth pp. 260-263
Reading 31 “A Day in the Life of Two Americas” by L. Steinhorn & B. Diggs-Brown pp. 263-271
Personal account: “Play Some Rolling Stones” by M. D. Stockenberg p. 271
Reading 37 “Why are Droves of Unqualified, Unprepared kids Getting into our Top Colleges? Because Their Dads are Alumni” by J. Larew pp. 300-305

Quotation: “race relations in America is a riddle wrapped in a quandary hidden inside a history” p. 186 L. Steinhorn & B. Diggs-Brown  2000 By the Color of our Skin: The Illusion of Integration and the Reality of Race. New York: Plume Books.

April 26
Dialogues on integration, separatism, and discrimination
Affirmative action
“Color blindness”
Natural law language
Legal Issues

Reading 38 (skim) “Twelve Key Supreme Court Cases” pp. 325-351
Reading 39 “Group Rights” by D. Igraham pp. 351-366
Reading 41 “Social Movements and the Politics of Difference” by C. Z. Kerchis & I. M. Young pp. 371-385, especially pp. 382-383  “Redefining Difference as Variation
Reading 42 (skim) “Facing History, Facing Ourselves” by E. K. Yamamoto pp. 385-398

April 28
Language policy and practice
Racist and sexist language
English-only policies
Varieties of Englishes in the U.S.

Reading 27 “Our Classroom Barrios” by P. Welsh pp. 240-243
Reading 28 (skim)“Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication” by L. M. Barna pp. 243-253
Reading 55 “Racism in the English Language” by R. B. Moore pp. 502-509
Reading 56 “Gender Stereotyping in the English Language” by L. Richardson pp. 509-514
Reading 54 (skim) “Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States” by R. Schmidt pp. 492-501  

May 3
“The Other” in popular culture
Stereotypes and representations
Ethnic groups and the media

Reading 49 Orientals by R. G. Lee pp. 455-463
Personal Account: “Let Me Work for It” by I. Nguyen p. 464
Reading 53 “What Americans Don't Know about Indians” by S. Mander pp. 487-492
*Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia:
*Read either article: “Illusions and Deceptions: The Indian in Popular Culture” by John H. Nottage and selected images pp.  75-83 OR
“American Indian stereotypes: Persistent cultural blindness” by Nancy Parezo pp. 41-49

May 5

May 10
MORE PAPER PRESENTATIONS and/or topic chosen by the class

May 12 Class review and in-class cumulative final test

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.  
Park University 2004-2005 Undergraduate Catalog
Page 101

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. <a href="">
Park University 2004-2005 Undergraduate Catalog</a> Page 101

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "WH".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2004-2005 Undergraduate Catalog Page 100

Disability Guidelines:

Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all learners that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to learners concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the American with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding learners with disabilities and, to the extent of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page:

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