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CJ 311 Criminal Investigation
Black, Peter T.


Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

Course

CJ 311 Criminal Investigation

Semester

F2T 2007 DLA

Faculty

Black, Peter T.

Title

Adjunct Faculty

Degrees/Certificates

BA Criminal Justice Administration
MA Management and Supervision Concentration in Public Administration

Office Location

Online

Office Hours

Monday-Thursday 7-10 PM (EST)   Friday 5-7 PM (EST)   Saturday and Sunday 8-11 AM (EST)

Other Phone

410-394-6357

E-Mail

Peter.Black@pirate.park.edu

petergtblack@usa.net

Semester Dates

October 22-December 16, 2007

Class Days

Asynchronous

Class Time

Asynchronous

Prerequisites

Pre-requisites: CJ 100 and CJ 105.

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:
Criminal Investigation, Eighth ed., 2007, by Bennett and Hess http://direct.mbsbooks.com/park.htm

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:
 

GENERAL LEGAL RESOURCES

www.findlaw.com FindLaw, which is part of West Group, is one of the most comprehensive sources of free legal information. You can access all federal and state cases, codes, and agency regulations, as well as journal articles, newsletters, and links to other useful sites and discussion groups.

www.ncf.edu/novak/vl/Alist.html This extensive list of legal resources is arranged alphabetically. It bills itself as “Legal Resources without Charge.”

www.law.cornell.edu The Legal Information Institute (LII) at Cornell Law School also is a great site for legal research and includes federal, state, and international law. You can access materials by topic or by jurisdiction, or you can browse through one its topical libraries.

www.hg.org/index.html Hieros Gamos offers legal and business resources from the United States and abroad.

www.lawguru.com/ilawlib The Internet Law Library provides many legal resources relating to American and foreign law.

http://washlaw.edu WashLaw Web, sponsored by Washburn University School of Law, offers many links to legal resources on the Web.

www.law.com/index.shtml This site provides up-to-date legal news articles and information, and has links to other legal news publications, including the National Law Journal.

HELPFUL GOVERNMENT SITES

http://firstgov.gov The U.S. government’s official Web site provides links to every branch of the federal government, including federal agencies.

www.loc.gov The Library of Congress has links to state and federal government resources, and the THOMAS system slows you to search through several legislative databases.

www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html The U.S. Government Printing Office posts official information from each of the three branches of the federal government, including publications such as the Code of Federal Regulations and the Federal Register.

www.usdoj.gov The U.S. Department of Justice provides information on many areas of law, including civil rights, employment discrimination, crime, and immigration.

www.csg.org The Council of State Governments offers state news information, legislation, and links to state home pages.

FEDERAL AND STATE COURTS

www.supremecourtus.gov The United States Supreme Court provides its case opinions, orders, and other information about the Court, including its history, procedures, schedule, and transcripts of oral arguments.

www.oyez.org/oyez/frontpage This site offers a multimedia guide to the United States Supreme Court, including a virtual tour of the building, and digital audio of oral arguments and Court decisions in cases.

www.uscourts.gov/index.html The Federal Judiciary provides access to every federal court (including district courts, appellate courts, and bankruptcy courts).

www.ncsconline.org The National Center for State Courts offers links to the Web pages of all state courts.

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

www.aclu.org The American Civil Liberties Union provides information on pertinent legal issues, such as privacy and discrimination.

FINDING PEOPLE

Public records are helpful in looking for people, but some records (including most historic records) are not on the Internet. Despite this limitation, Web searches can be cheaper and faster than going to a government office or a library.

BROAD SEARCHES

On the Web, a researcher can run a broad search with a general search engine such as Yahoo (www.yahoo.com). A researcher might also narrow the focus of a search to, for example, all of the U.S. phone books. There are several phone book Web sites. Each of the sites has its unique features. Some provide e-mail addresses (for example, Yahoo People Search at http://people.yahoo.com). Some include business listings (see, for example, BigBook at www.superpages.com). Some can conduct a search with a phone number or an e-mail address to reveal a name and a street address (see, for example, the Internet Address Finder at www.iaf.net./).   On some sites such as WhoWhere (www.whowhere.com/), a search can be based on personal characteristics, such as occupation, school, or affiliation with a certain organization. Another phone book can also be searched at World Pages (www.worldpages.com).

 

NARROW SEARCHES

If something is known about a person, the Web can be a good source for locating him or her. For example, if you are looking for an attorney, you can link to West Legal Directory, which is a comprehensive compilation of lawyers in the United States, from www.FindLaw.com.    On the front of the home page, use “Find a Lawyer.” Then you will have use of a search engine powered by West Legal Directory.

            To look for a professor at a particular university or an employee at a certain company, the staff directory of the school or business firm may be available, and searchable, online. (See, for example, the directory for the faculty of Yale Law School at www.law.yale.edu/faculty/faculty.htm )

INVESTIGATING COMPANIES

It is important to remember that sites on the Web can be searched online anonymously (without the awareness of the firm about which information is sought). Because of this anonymity, you may learn of competitive threats and opportunities without alerting your competitor.

 

FINDING COMPANY NAMES AND ADDRESSES

A researcher can run a search with a phone number to find a company’s name and address (for example, see Verizon Superpages at www.superpages.com). Without a phone number, a company’s name and address can be found with the help of a directory that searches by industry and state (see the Switchboard.com page at www.switchboard.com, for example). A search with such a directory can also help to determine whether a specific firm name is in use anywhere in the United States. You can find out about who owns a domain name by using the free services of Network Solutions, now owned by domain name by using the free services of Network Solutions, now owned by Verisign (www.networksolutions.com). On the top right of its home page, click on WHOIS.

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCE SITES ON THE INTERNET

What is available on the Web changes rapidly. New sites come online. Old favorites disappear. Familiar sites move. URLs change. This section lists some additional sites that a legal professional might find helpful. Many of these sites are not otherwise noted here. Included are references to valuable sites that have been on the Web for some time and have been kept up-to-date. Note, however, that this list is not meant to be exhaustive.

 

BASIC RESOURCES

Important Web resources for a criminal justice professional include more than law-related sites. Sometimes, however, all that is needed is some basic information: the meaning of a word, the area code for a telephone number, or a local map, for example. Sites with such basic information include the following:

 

Almanacs and Nonlegal Encyclopedias. These may be found at a site maintained by Information Please at http://www.infoplease.com/

Dictionaries. A dictionary is provided at a site titled “WWWebster Dictionary” (Merriam-Webster, Inc.) at www.m-w.com/netdict.htm. Sites for legal dictionaries, multiple dictionaries, and specialized dictionaries are mentioned below.

 

E-mail Addresses. E-mail addresses may be located through the Internet @address.finder at www.iaf.net/.

Information about the Internet. Many sites that provide background information about the Internet. These include WhatIs?Com at http://whatis.techtarget.com/ and the Internet Society (ISOC) at www.isoc.org/.

Internet Directories. A half dozen Internet directories, including Yahoo (www.yahoo.com) and Infoseek (http://infoseek.go.com) are well known. Other Internet directories include “E-Map: The Electronic Map to the Internet” at www.e-map.com/. A site titled “Librarians’ Index to the Internet” is at http://lii.org. Another useful directory is WebCrawler at www.WebCrawler.com/.

Internet Search Tools. iLOR at www.iLOR.com gives you the ability to save specific search results for later use. Northern Light at www.nlsearch.com/ will categorize your search results by type of Web site.

Internet Service Providers. To locate an Internet service provider, see the site ISP Finder at www.ispfinder.com/.   The commercial service American Online can be accessed at www.aol.com.

Legal Dictionaries. The ‘Lectric Law Library provides a dictionary of legal terms at www.lectlaw.com/d-a.htm. There is a “plain language” legal dictionary titled “WWLIA Legal Dictionary” at www.duhaime.org/diction.htm.

Library Catalogs. For lists of links to the catalogs of libraries that may be accessed online, consult Yahoo’s Library Collection at www.yahoo.com/Reference/Libraries. The Library of Congress offers a collection of links to other libraries’ catalogs at lcWeb.loc.gov/z3950/gateway.html. For a list of the categories of law libraries that may be available, see Hieros Gamos’ “Libraries and Library Catalogs” at www.hg.org/toplibrary.html.

Maps. One useful site is MapQuest at www.mapquest.com/. See also World Maps at www.maps.com/

 

Multiple Dictionaries. On-Line Dictionaries includes links to more than 500 dictionaries in over 140 languages at www.yourdictionary.com.

Specialized Dictionaries. One Look at www.onelook.com/ offers an engine that searches hundreds of dictionaries focused on such special topics as business, medicine, science, technology, and the Internet.

Telephone Directories. All U.S. phone books are online at Switchboard at www.switchboard.com. These books are also available at www.555-1212.com.  A directory of toll-free numbers can be found at AT&T Toll-Free Solutions at www.anywho.com/tf.html.

Thesauri. The WWWebster Dictionary site, produced by Merriam-Webster, Inc., includes a thesaurus at www.m-w.com. Roget’s Thesaurus is accessible through a couple of URLs, including www.bartleby.com/thesauri/. Try also www.thesaurus.com.

Zip Codes. For zip codes, see the U.S. Postal Service site at www.usps.com/zip4.

UNIVERSITY SITES

Many universities, colleges, law schools, and other academic institutions are dedicated to making the Internet and its related technology an essential part of professional research. Their Web sites are often good points from which to start because in general they provide updated material and links to other resources. These sites include the following.

Law-related Starting Points. The Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School is a good starting place for online legal research. The URL is www.law.cornell.edu. This site includes many United States Supreme Court decisions (within hours or days of their release) and links to many other law-related sites and services.

Another good site is the World Wide Web Virtual Law Library maintained by the Indiana University School of Law at www.law.indiana.edu/v-lib/index.html. This is a comprehensive, up-to-date, subject index of law-related topics.

            Meta-Index for Legal Research at Georgia State University College of Law (http://gsulaw.gsu.edu/metaindex) enables a researcher to run a search in several Web sites’ internal search tools simultaneously.

            Northwestern University, at Oyez Oyez Oyez: A Supreme Court Database (www.oyez.org/oyez/frontpage), provides digital audio (RealAudio) of the oral arguments in many important United States Supreme Court cases, as well as recordings of some of the announcements of the Court’s opinions.

GOVERNMENT RESOURCES LISTINGS

The site of the Documents Center of the University of Michigan Library is a reference point for local, state, federal, foreign, and a wealth of complete international laws resources on the Web. The URL is www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/index.html. This site is one of the most comprehensive lists of links to government documents on the Web, with descriptions of what is included at each link.

 

Web Site Evaluations. Questions to use when considering the reliability and accuracy of a particular Web site are listed at a site titled “Thinking Critically about World Wide Web Resources” at www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/help/critical/index.htm.

 

FREE COMMERCIAL SITES

 

All-purpose Starting Points. Yahoo organizes, categorizes, and subdivides the most comprehensive list of URLs on the Web. New Web addressees are added at the rate of hundreds per day. Yahoos’ address is www.yahoo.com.

            A collection of references to subject guides can be found at the Internet Public Library at www.ipl.org.

Law-related Starting Points

            “The Internet Legal Resource Guide” at www.ilrg.com/ is an index of approximately four thousand law-related Web sites, categorized by topic. The site also includes the “LawRunner: A Legal Research Tool,” which is preprogrammed to run your search terms in templates across as many as thirty million Web pages.

            The reference site called “Internet Tools for Lawyers” can be found at www.netlawtools.com/research/index.html. This site is both a guide to research on the Web and a good starting point with links to other online resources.

            Law-related search engines are linked at “Virtual Legal Search Engines,” a site produced by an organization called Virtual Search Engines, at www.virtualfreesites.com/search.legal.html. This site also includes a number of basic references (dictionaries, for example) and links to search engines for other topics.

            “Law Library Resource Xchange” (LLRX) at www.llrx.com/ provides links to a number of resource sites on the net, ranging from legal research to library products and services. This site, which is maintained by Law Library Resource Xchange, L.L.C., includes timely and updated articles relating to research and library topics.

Media Directory. The American Journalism Review site contains more than eight thousand links to the online pages of newspapers, magazines, and other media, at www.newslink.org/menu.html

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email helpdesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the http://parkonline.org website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.

http://jobsearch.usajobs.opm.gov/series_search.asp
http://www.afip.org/
http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/doj/oig/fbilab1/fbil1toc.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/09/0923_040923_csi.html
http://www.dcfl.gov/
http://www.fincen.gov/

Course Description:

This intermediate course includes a discussion of the nature and purpose of criminal investigation, historical background, tools employed, skills development, and techniques useful in the reconstruction of criminal activity.

Educational Philosophy:
The facilitator's educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings. The facilitator will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues and contradictions.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Differentiate types of investigative techniques used in courts.
  2. Examine specific methods for investigation of major crimes.


  Instructor Learning Outcomes
  1. Learning Outcome(s): The student will learn the critical elements of a crime scene search and the role of the crime laboratory.  The student will learn the processes for writing notes and reports, as well
  2. as the criticality of good field notes and incident reports.  The
  3. student will learn how to conduct follow-up investigations, and especially
  4. the use of technology to support those investigations. The student will look at the art and science of criminalistics and forensic science. The student will look at the work of criminal intelligence units by studying the intelligence/analytical cycle and the tools available to an investigator.the student will study the management of investigations involving deaths and injuries. Additionally, the student will learn about the critical elements involved in the investigation of sex offenses.The student will examine crimes against children, including assaults and child sexual abuse. The student will study a variety of subjects including Sudden Death Infant Syndrome (SIDS), runaways and abductions, and crime in our schools. The student will learn the elements of the crime of robbery, as well as unique investigative considerations. The student will study the elements of the crime of Burglary. This will be done by reviewing the investigative considerations involved in Burglary. The student will also review the crimes of Fraud and Larceny, through a study of the wide variety of crimes involved in these offenses.  The student will also study vehicular theft, including auto theft, heavy equipment theft, farm equipment theft, and commercial vehicle theft.The student will learn about significant computer crimes and computer hackers, as well as the challenges facing the investigator delving into these matters.  The student will also learn about agricultural thefts, such as timber theft, agrichemical theft and the theft of livestock. The student will study the impact of environmental crimes, as well as the investigative approaches of federal, state, and local governments.  Finally, the student will study arson and explosives investigations focusing on the crime scene investigation and the motives for these offenses. The student will learn about drug abuse by individuals and medical practitioners. Then the student will be exposed to domestic and international terrorism. Finally, the student will learn about some of the critical legal definitions and processes involved in criminal investigations.
Core Assessment:

For CJ311, all students will complete an essay, not less than 4 pages (1,000 words) in length (excluding the cover sheet, title, and bibliography pages) as follows:

            It can be argued that the foundation for community support for law enforcement is in the trust built by faith that the police follow the law and adhere to the U.S. Constitution. For example, criminal investigative questioning must be guided by Fourth Amendment search and seizure protections. Harsh or questionable investigative methods may be unethical and illegal. 

            Discuss whether the concern for homeland security has redefined acceptable or ethical criminal investigative tactics used by law enforcement. Explain what impact changes in criminal investigative techniques and methods may have on police-community relations, criminal prosecutions, and the ability of police to investigate major crimes.

            The essay should be typed, double-spaced, be written in APA format, including in-text source citations, and use a minimum of 4 course-external sources.

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:
Class assessment is based on participation in our discussions, weekly papers, and a proctored final examination.

Grading:
1. Each week's discussion is worth 50 points. 2. Each week's paper is worth 100 points. 3. The proctored final is worth 200 points. 4. The course paper (CORE ASSESSMENT) is worth 500 points.

Late Submission of Course Materials:
I expect work to be submitted on time. I subtract 10% for each day that material is late. I do not accept any material that is five days late.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
I expect vigorous and substantive debates. I also expect us to respect one another. I expect civil behavior from each student.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
Week #1 10/22 The Requirements for Criminal Investigation Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. This week, you have no paper assigned. Week #2 10/29 During Week 2, we'll examine the legality and mechanics of searches, including searches of property and persons. We will conclude this week with a study of physical evidence. This will include the basic types, their nature, importance to an investigation and methods of safeguarding. One item we will discuss will be a report of the official investigation of improper handling of evidence by the FBI laboratory. Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Week 2 Paper After having examined the main points of the Dept. of Justice Inspector General's report of the allegations of improper evidence handling at the FBI lab, provide your own opinion. Do you agree with the IG, or do you feel differently? Provide reasons supporting your opinion. Week #3 11/05 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Offer your opinion regarding the gradual dilution of the court mandates of the 1960's such as Miranda. Each year the courts seem to find more circumstances and cases in which these rules are set aside. Is this a good or bad trend for investigators? Week #4 11/12 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Read the Application scenario A on page 231 of your text and provide answers to the two questions. In addition, provide a list of what physical evidence you would search for in this incident. Week #5 11/19 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Examine the unique aspects of Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy and discuss them. Provide information of how you would investigate this type crime. Week #6 11/26 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Using the concept of White Collar Crime as found in the text, what do you consider the most dangerous form and why? Provide supportive reasoning for your choice. Week #7 12/03 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. What do you see as the future of computer crime? What types do you believe will increase or decrease? Provide supportive reasons for your statements. Week #8 12/10 Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Work through Application B, the LET Challenge, starting on page 510 (page 517 in the 6th edition), providing answers to the questions posed. E-mail your instructor your answers along with explanations of why you chose as you did. Take the proctored final examination. Submit your final paper via Pirate email to your instructor.

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  3. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  4. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  5. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  6. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  7. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: An attendance report of "P" (present) will be recorded for students who have logged in to the Online classroom at least once during each week of the term. Recording of attendance is not equivalent to participation. Participation grades will be assigned by each instructor according to the criteria in the Grading Policy section of the syllabus.

Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Appraises the sources into congruous and thoughtful conclusions - thoughtful implies some original thinking. Appraises the sources into congruous conclusions. Evaluation is weak. Evaluation is not present. 
Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Combines researched material into a consistent whole; extends research well beyond minimum requirements. Combines researched material into a consistent whole. Researched material is presented but not into a consistent whole. No evidence of combining researched material into a consistent whole. 
Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Analyzes key elements using 4 or more course-external sources. Analyzes key elements using at least 3 sources. Analyzes key elements using less than 3 sources. Analysis is not supported by any source material or no evidence of analysis is present. 
Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
The essay shows multiple instances and exceptional understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows sufficient and satisfactory use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows minimal use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay fails to demonstrate an understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes. 
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Essay conveys complete and exceptional information on investigative techniques used in courts and specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys sufficient information on investigative techniques used in courts and specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys minimal information on investigative techniques used in courts and/or specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys no information on investigative techniques used in courts or specific methods for investigating major crimes. 
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Outcomes
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Essay contains all required technical components: 4 pages in length (excluding required cover sheet, title page, and bibliography), typed, double-spaced.   Written in APA Style, including in-text source citations.  Contains fewer than five grammatical or spelling errors. Essay contains most required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors but errors do not detract from understanding. Written in APA Style, but may have a few formatting errors. Essay contains few required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors that detract from understanding. APA Style usage is barely evident. Essay contains no required technical components. There are so many errors in the APA writing convention, in the paper presentation, or in grammar and/or spelling that it is difficult to read. 

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Last Updated:9/27/2007 9:50:12 AM