CH 408 Physical Chemistry II
SP 2008 HO
Associate Professor of Chemistry and Physics
816 584 6338
14 January-09 May 2008
10:10 - 11:25 AM
CH407 and one of the following: MA213, MA302, or MA311.
David Ball, Physical Chemistry, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2003 (required).
-Bound Laboratory Notebook
-A scientific calculator (with statistical capabilities)
Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore
Additional Resources: Instructor Handouts
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The instructor’s educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, quizzes, problems, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings along with the lab experience. The instructor will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues, and contradictions.
Learning Outcomes: Core Learning Outcomes
Link to Class RubricClass Assessment:
Your final grade will be based on three (3) 50-minute exams and a comprehensive final. (See dates under COURSE TOPICS/DATES/ASSIGN- MENTS. The dates of exams are on Friday.) Your grade will also reflect your lab performance (see separate syllabus for lab), a literature project, and homework. (The material in lab is very important. Know what you do in lab – it may appear on exams.)
Snow/tornado days – If there is no class due to inclement weather, the scheduled exam will be given the next class time. If the weather affects the final, check with the office or your email for an alternate date. This will most likely be the following day.
I expect not only that you know something, but also to use what you know. You may not have been asked to do this before. Your future employer or research director is going to ask you to do this. In other words, you will have to use what you have learned. Think critically! This course will also stretch you analytical thinking skills.
There will be three 50-minute exams during the semester (all Fridays)/ Exams will be based mainly on material studied since the last exam, but all previous material is also possible. It would be to your advantage to learn any questions you may have answered incorrectly from the previous exams.
Make Up Exams
If you miss an exam and choose to make up the zero, an exam will be given the Thursday of finals week. This exam will count as the missed exam. This exam will be over any material I choose. You cannot miss more than one exam. Any exams missed over one will have a grade entered as zero.
If you know you will be absent for an exam, see me, call, or e-mail to set up a time to take it before the class. You will have this privilege once during the semester.
You are expected to read the assignment and work problems. The best way to learn chemistry is to work problems. Assigned problems will be given during the discussion of the chapters. Fully understand these problems and the worked out problems in the text, for a few may appear on exams in some form or another.
The problem set is due for discussion the class after the day we finish the chapter.
For the assigned problem-sets and exam problems you must show all work. You must show all steps to get to that answer that appears in back of the text if there is one. Box in the final result. Staple the pages. Be careful not to staple through problems. The grader will not struggle to try to read your work through a staple. Put your name on the top one. Failure to show all work will result in no credit for the problem.
Failure to box in the final answer will result in a deduction of ¼ problem credit.
Failure to staple the pages will result in a deduction of ¼ credit of the problem-set.
If you staple through written work, the grader will not struggle to try to read your work. Zero credit will be given for that problem.
Failure to put your name on the top page will result in no one grading the problem set.
Late Homework: You will be given a check mark for any homework late. This is a zero numerically.
No Homework: You will be given a zero. More than three zeros will result in a decrease of one letter grade for the course. More than five zeros will result in a decrease of two letter grades for the course.
Exam3 (one hour) 10 April Chapt. 15, 16, 18
Exams(3) 40% A 86-100
Final 20% B 74-85
Lab 15% C 62-73
Homework 12% D 50-61
Classroom Rules of Conduct:
Computers make writing and revising much easier and more productive. Students must recognize though that technology can also cause problems. Printers run out of ink and hard drive crash. Students must be responsible for planning ahead and meeting deadlines in spite of technology. Be sure to save copies of your work to disk, hard drive, and print out paper copies for backup purposes.
Remember, you are not the only one in class and we have a lot of material to cover. Ask questions, but do not monoplilize the class time.
Purchase a stapler. All reports and papers must be stapled.
The course will follow somewhat, the traditional lecture format. However, the class will be flexible enough to allow for vigorous discussions of the various topics. As such, you will be required to read the chapter material prior to coming to class. The lectures will be supplemented by a number of reading assignments
Homework problems will be assigned. It is the student’s responsibility to use these questions as a guide to their studying. They are representative of possible exam questions and may even show up on an exam. The suggested problems should always be viewed as the minimum you need to be doing. It is highly recommended that you do as much as possible.
Class: You should be familiar with the material before coming to class by reading the text. I will try to make the class more practical problem oriented. Thus, questions will be asked questions during the class and you are to intelligently respond. (“I don’t know” is not an acceptable answer.) I will know your names. Too many incorrect responses will be remembered and included in the grade. At the end of each chapter you will find a summary. Use this as a study guide to study for exams.
Everyone working in the laboratory is responsible for laboratory safety. Common sense will take care of most situations but if you have any questions or concerns, please ask the instructor. Anyone who seriously endangers the safety of themselves or others in the laboratory will be given only one warning. In the event that a second warning is to be issued, the student will be removed from the laboratory and a grade of zero for the laboratory experiment.
Each student must wear approved safety glasses/goggles in the laboratory. Only one warning will be given: each additional warning will result in a five-point fine (see above).
1. All students are required to wear goggles or other approved eye protection in the lab at all times.
2. An instructor must be present for you to be in the laboratory
3. All students must come to the laboratory prepared to perform the experiment. This means that you have read and understand what you are going to do before coming to lab. Your notebook is up-to-date with your procedure written out.
4. The proper attire is worn, (NO shorts, short skirts, sleeveless shirts or blouses, tank tops, sandals or open-toed or open-back shoes will be allowed in the laboratory.).
5. No FOOD or DRINK will be permitted in the laboratory at any time. (No gum, no bottled beverage, even if it is closed in your backpack. Leave it outside the room.)
6. You should keep your bags and coats on the side benches. Under no circumstances will they be allowed to be in your work area.
These rules are for your protection and no exceptions will be permitted.
In this lab you will be working with chemicals that the potential to be harmful to your health or to the health of an unborn child. Please be attentive to any cautionary statements given by your instructor or listed on the labels of chemical containers. If you think you may be pregnant or are planning to be pregnant, it is your responsibility to alert the instructor so that additional safety precautions may be taken or alternatives found.
Literature Review Project
The objective of this assignment is the preparation of a literature report demonstrating your ability to search the physical chemical reference literature for specialized information related to a specific instrumental analysis technique. The nature of the assignment allows you to fulfill this task by selecting a topic that is of personal interest to you, perhaps because of past experience or (future) interests.
You should select a unique topic that involves physical chemistry in some way and in some way pertains to the material covered in class. You must obtain approval from Dr. Chernovitz for your topics before proceeding with the writing of the reports. Finding good topics is the hardest step for many students. One way to find a topic is to browse current journals that publish physical chemistry papers. If possible, a key literature reference might be selected to provide an "entrance" to the literature of the chosen area. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, the Journal of Physical Chemistry B, and the Journal of Chemical Education are just three journals to start your search and may also provide a useful source of ideas. For example, the topic might involve a particular separation problem, a new energy calculation, or another theoretical idea. Your topic should not overlap with that of another student.
Presumably, if you choose a topic of interest to you, you may find yourself motivated enough to read in detail all the articles that you find! As your chemistry career progresses, it is exactly this sort of reading on your own that will serve as an important way to advance your knowledge. The summary and list of journal references that you produce should be complete enough to provide an adequate overview of the current state-of-the-art in the selected topic.
The reference list of research publications related to your chosen topic should place emphasis on journal articles published within the last few years.
References older than 10 years should not be included unless they represent truly major contributions or unless the literature is sparse. The primary source of this reference list should be research journals not textbooks, although textbooks may be listed as background references if necessary. Because the emphasis is on recent literature, it is appropriate to seek material from the following sources:
a. Scan current journals for articles published in the last few months.
b. Search abstracting indexes such as "Current Contents" for appropriate keywords related to the topic; this will identify publications 6-12 months old.
c. Having found an article in the literature that is several years old, you can find more recently published articles that reference that old article by searching "Science Citation Index." SCI is published several times each year and five-year cumulative indexes are published. You can find the listing of the old article in SCI and under the listing, any articles that cite that article during the pertinent time period. This is good way to quantitate the importance of an article to the growth of the literature in an area: important articles will tend to be cited more heavily (although it is possible to be cited for a major debacle).
d. Another avenue of literature exploration is the computer-searchable CD-ROM material available in the Linda Hall Library or web databases provided by the Park University library. Use these sources, but do not rely on them alone. There is a considerable delay before articles appear in the any database. If you are looking for current or recent articles, browsing the current journals may be the best resource.
1. Select your topic and get approval from Dr. Chernovitz
2. Compile your list of references, arranging them chronologically, with the more recent articles listed last and alphabetically by first author within each year. Use the ACS reference style for the appropriate literature citation style. It might be useful to mark with an asterisk the more important or interesting articles that you have found. Also, include in your citation of each article the TITLE of the paper; place it between the author list and the journal name. Although including the title deviates from the ACS citation style, retaining it with the reference may make the list of citations more useful to you in the future. (Note that because the reference list is to be organized in chronological fashion, the order of citation of the articles in the text may not be in numerical order, depending on how the paper is organized.)
3. Write a summary describing the topic that you selected for your literature survey. Your written report should explain the background of the problem, and should describe the major approaches used to solve the task or problem. Focus on the instrumental analysis techniques employed. Describe instrumentation, conditions, etc., along a summary of results achieved. You can imagine that the report you are writing might serve as the background introduction to an article on this subject. The text should refer to the literature that you have found by citing the references by number from your list grouped at the end of the paper.
4. Your report should be typed in double-spaced format. The writing should be concise— no less than 9 pages, no more than 11 pages in length, not including the list of references or the cover sheet. The last counted page should be at least ¾ filled. Diagrams and inserts should be placed at the end so as not to count as your text. Insert the date that the literature report was completed at the bottom of the report. Font: no greater than 12, Margins: one inch on all sides
5. Turn in your completed literature review by 04/25/08, no later than 5:00 pm by sending a copy of the report (preferably in Microsoft Word format) as an email attachment to Dr. Chernovitz. “The subject line must be CH408 report.” Also submite a hard copy.
Academic Honesty:Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86
Plagiarism:Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85
Attendance Policy:Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.
Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88
Disability Guidelines:Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .
Physical Chemistry Laboratory
The physical chemistry laboratory is a hands-on, intellectually stimulating activity. You are encouraged to ask questions and think critically so that learning science becomes enjoyable and exciting.
There is a weekly laboratory scheduled for Thursdays. There are no make-up labs. Remember that there is no eating or drinking in the lab, you must wear eye protection, and you are expected to be in lab on time. Lab reports are due the following week after completing the experiment.
You must keep an elaborate and highly organized account of each lab exercise in your notebook. Organization of your notebook: (1) Leave a few pages at the beginning for a table of contents (by experiment), a list of commonly used tables, and a list of commonly used figures, and appendices. (2) Neatness is important, but you must write in procedures as you plan them and enter data as you collect it (not on notebook paper or napkins for later transfer to your official record). (3) Record every detail in your notebook for future reference. Some items that may not be immediately evident, but should be included, are the type, model number, serial number of equipment (serial number only if more than one piece of the equipment is available), type of glassware used in dilutions, standard dilutions, and brand name and lot number of all chemicals used. (4) No skipped pages are allowed in official (legally defensible) notebooks without proper procedures. (5) Each page must be signed at the bottom (by you) and dated at the end of that day. If half pages are left empty, a single line must be drawn though the blank section, noted that it was intentionally left blank, and initialed by you. (In the real world, normally your supervisor and a QA/QC person would have to review and initial each page at the end of the day. Since there are a number of you in class, I will randomly pick one of you from time to time to review your notebook.) (6) All entries must be made with a ballpoint pin (not the alcohol-based, water-soluble pens that are more commonly available). If you make a mistake, draw a single line though the mistake, and write in the correction. Do not obliterate a number that you think is in error as you may find that you actually needed that number. (7) Remember that the goal of this entire process is to produce a document that you, or one of your peers, can pick up (even years in the future) and exactly reproduce your procedure and hopefully your results. (8) Everything that you do in the lab should be recorded in your lab notebook as you do it, including lengthy procedures and calculations as you do them.
Formal lab reports will be required for all labs. All text must be typed with the exception of lab data sheets, graphs, and all figures must be computer generated for the conclusion section. Experiments and procedures will vary from lab to lab, but a general outline for the reports follows:
Student Name (Partner’s name)
Date Lab was performed (date of submission)
Course and Course Number
Introduction, Purpose, or Objective of Lab: a concise but descriptive statement of the what you planned to do. (This can be in present or past tense.)
Theory: I suggest that you start with a solid description of the theory. In this section, you describe the objectives and concepts of the lab. Define any key words; show any equation you use in the lab, and describe any theory or law that is used. Do no describe the procedures of the experiment or copy the objectives from the handout. This is a brief statement of the purpose of the experiment. This section should be no shorter than one page in length.
You should not copy the experiment objective from the lab manual, rather put the objective(s) in your own words. Your written objective for experiments should always be stated in terms of a scientific objective rather than a person-learning objective. The objective should always be written in complete sentences.
After you have written a statement of scientific objectives for the experiment, you should write, in your own words, a description of how the objective is to be attained experimentally and by subsequent calculations. Specific details as to amounts and concentrations of reagents are not needed for that description; try to describe the experiment as you would to a classmate. Keep it brief, but concise and complete.
Experimental: everything that you do in the lab, including but not limited to equipment used, date and time of day, reference materials, manuals, or documentable procedures used, detailed procedures that you performed for dilutions, standard preparations, equipment set-up, tables showing solution preparation or dilutions, figures showing any apparatus used, notes on reagents (stock number, possible age of reagent, odd colors, etc.), and any other relevant observations. (Excessive-compulsive behavior (a.k.a. anal) is a good thing.) For the exact procedure, you will need to describe how the experiment was modified. If no modifications were made, then refer to the experiment by name, author, and text.
Data and Results: data that you collected in the lab and any relevant observations. The measurements and observations you make must be recorded in neatly prepared data tables. Use spreadsheets. These do have to be typed Place your carbon copy in back of the report. When calibration curves are used you must use the spreadsheet you developed to analyze the data and obtain all estimates of s for the slope (m), the y-intercept (b), and your sample concentration (sc). Students who perform a propagation of uncertainty calculation will be looked upon very favorably (I strongly suggest at least one calculation when appropriate).
Raw data collected is to be manipulated in this section. You should record your data and observations as you make them in the laboratory. Be sure to make good observations. Below the table you should enter your sample calculations. The calculations need not show arithmetic details but must show a representative setup for each type of calculations, together with numerical values and UNITS. For example, suppose that the mass of your watch glass was 47.050 g and the mass of the watch glass and iodine together was 55.127 g. Then, you should show:
mass iodine = (mass watch glass + iodine) - (mass watch glass) = 55.127 g - 47.050 g = 7.977 g
If, for example, you had done two separate trials for the same experiment, you will need to show the calculation for only one trial.
You should present your data and results in neatly prepared data tables with values explained and with units. If your instructor is unable to follow your organization or must hunt around for data or results you will receive no points for this section. Therefore, it is in your best interest to be neat and organized. Sample calculation should be at the end of your results tables. They should be neatly organized and easy to follow.
Error Analysis: A quantitative error analysis is expected for all laboratory reports.
It is especially important in science for the experimenter to discuss the imprecision in the final value and what variables have affected that uncertainty. Whenever possible, this is done quantitatively by calculating an experimental uncertainty interval which is reported along with the value itself. For example, the molecular weight of compound X was reported by an investigator as 127.65 ± 0.22 g/mol. This usually means that there is a 0.95 probability (95% confidence) that the “true” molecular weight of the compound is between 127.65 + 0.22 g/mol and 127.65 - 0.22 g/mol, i.e., 127.43 g/mol and 127.87 g/mol. See Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Shoemaker, Garland, [and Steinfeld], McGraw-Hill, “Treatment of Experimental Data” and especially “Propagation of Errors”. -
Discussion: Carefully evaluate the data, thoroughly discuss it, and what it means. Considerable thought should go into this section. The discussion section is where you interpret your observations and calculations, to discuss what you have learned in the experiment, to discuss if anything went wrong and how you would do it differently if you were to redo the experiment, and to discuss your numerical results by comparing the agreement between different trials or between your average values and accepted values. You should evaluate whether or not your scientific objectives were met, clearly indicating your reasoning and supportive evidence. In addition, you should compare your results to “accepted” results, if available (percent error). Finally, you should state what you learned by doing the experiment and answer any questions from class or the lab manual.
Conclusions: Summarize what you have already said in your conclusion statements above. Present your results in tabular form (typed). (Remember, do not use personal pronouns (I, we, etc.) in your text.)
Your conclusions should include the following:
Re-state the objective(s)
1. State the final result(s) including error analysis and accepted value if relevant.
2. Explain how your result(s) meet your objective(s) for the experiment or why they are not consistent with your objective(s). (Rationalize your results.)
3. Discuss any problems or inconsistencies with your experiment.
Your conclusion should be concise and clear. you should not include any emotion, i.e., “I really like this experiment” or “I had a bad day and nothing went right”. (Do not blame your lab partner, either.) How well you understand the experiment will be shown in how well you discuss point 3 above. In your reports, most of the grading emphasis will be placed on learning to write excellent conclusions. You should remember, however, that taking good observations is also extremely important.
Questions: Answer the questions (if any) at the end of the lab. Show all work or give full explanations for each question.
Suggestions: I would appreciate a final section that is not included in scientific reports. Please give me suggestions on how to make the lab better (more interesting, not easier).
References: Include any references that you used (text, procedures, research, interpretation, etc.)
Include the carbon copy of the report.
Grading: The carbon copoy is to be sumitted to the instructor at the end of the lab period. DO NOT wait until the last week to complete them; this will be evident and will be reflected in your grade. Lab notebooks will make up 10 % of your lab grade. Lab reports are worth 20 points each, but constitute a total of 15 % of your final grade.
Lab Reports: Many of these labs will require two weeks for completion. These are due one week after the lab has been completed. Typical lab reports with correctly presented data, calculations, and graphs should be no less than 15 pages long.
Remember, a scientist should be able to pick up your report and be able to determine what you did, why you did it, what data was obtained and what you did with the data. The scientist should also be able to agree or disagree with the conclusion you made based on your results. Obviously, your reports should not be the type that you submitted in General Chemistry.
Lab Grade Assessment
Late work (homework or lab reports)
Late homework is not accepted.
Lab reports are due the following week after completing the experiment. If you are absent, put your work in an envelope and have it postmarked on the due date. A late penalty is assigned if the report is late. (If your report (due one week after you complete the lab) is up to 1 day late, you will have 10% deducted from your marks for that report, after the weekend (Monday) you will have 30% deducted, Tuesday you will have 50% deducted, Wednesday will be 75% deducted.)
Required on the exams and all lab reports: all work and units must be shown to receive credit. No credit will be given for a lone, standing number. You much watch significant figures in ALL your work. Incorrect significant figures mean an incorrect answer.
If you have questions or are confused ASK QUESTONS! SPEAK UP! Put a note under my door if you are shy. Most professors do not claim to be mind readers. We cannot read what is or what is not going through your mind.
The instructor has the right to change the syllabus during the semester.
Last Updated:1/11/2008 5:24:44 PM