EDE391 Diagnosis & Remed Read Difficult

for SP 2008

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Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

School For Education Mission Statement
The School for Education at Park University, an institution committed to diversity and best practice, prepares educators to be effective school professionals, reflective change agents, and advocates for equity and excellence for all learners.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


EDE 391 Diagnosis & Remed Read Difficult


SP 2008 HO


Greene, Judy Ann


Assistant Professor of Literacy


M.A. Special Education

Office Location

rm. 317 Copley

Office Hours

T/R 1:00-4:00 or by appointment

Daytime Phone




Semester Dates

January 14 – May 2

Class Days


Class Time

8:45 - 11:25 AM


EDE 380

Credit Hours



Dudley-Marling, Curt, and Paugh, Patricia. (2004). Classroom Teacher’s Guide to Struggling

Readers. Portsmouth, NJ: Heinemann. ISBN: 0-325-00541-9

Duffy, Gerald G. (2003). Explaining Reading: A Resource for Teaching Concepts, Skills, and

Strategies. New York: Guilford Press. ISBH: 1-57230-877*X

Johnston, Peter H. (2004). Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Children’s Learning.

Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-3899

McKenna, Michael C., Stahl, Steven A. (2003). Assessment for Reading Instruction. New York:

            Guilford Press. ISBN: 1-57230-867-2

Walker, Barbara J. (2008). Diagnostic Teaching of Reading: Techniques for Instruction and

Assessment, 6e. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. 

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-199586-4

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.

Course Description:
A survey of the instruments which teachers can use in their classroom to screen reading difficulties. The instruments will be demonstrated and mastered as part of the course. Methods and materials available to the classroom teacher for remediation reading difficulties are also a focus of this course. Pre-service students are required to work with elementary school students in a classroom setting and/or one on one for 32 hours of combined assessment and remedial tutoring in a school setting during regularly scheduled course hours set reserved for this purpose. This course is designed to prepare teachers to individualize reading instruction within a literacy program in the elementary school. Prerequisite: EDE 380 and admission to the School of Education. 6:0:6.

Educational Philosophy:
Teachers must be willing learners who embody what they hope to cultivate in their students—curiosity and joy of learning, courage to risk being wrong, ability to connect the classroom to the world around it as a desirable way to enrich and empower genuine mobility in personal, social, and professional life. Teachers must also have at heart, the understanding that little of value can be communicated without first establishing and maintaining a human, mutually respectful relationship. In other words, teachers must model what they ask of and expect from the students they teach, and they must enter the classroom with a disposition toward teaching-learning as an “us-we” instead of “me-them” effort.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Identify, articulate, and apply evidence-based best practices in assessment and instruction to address the cognitive strengths and needs of individual learners' reading skills.
  2. Respond in a facilitative way to challenges presented by motivational and affective needs of individual learners' reading skills.
  3. Identify and use effective oral and written communication with learners, parents, and professional peers regarding individual learners' reading difficulties, remedial instruction, and progress.
  4. Demonstrate effective use of critical self-reflection and on-going assessments to analyze, inform, and adjust instruction to meet individual learners' needs for improving reading skills.

Core Assessment:


  • Case Study Applications (final) combined with

  • Field Experience Report 

  • Pre-assessment to establish baseline for evaluating course effectiveness. 

  • Text Reflections including Bloom’s items 

  • Readability Study 

  • Pre-Assessment Practice  

  • Assessment Profile 

  • Post-Session Reflection Sheets 

  • Inteview 

  • Report/Observation Paper 

  • Case Study Applications (in-class) 

  • Post-Test (final) 

  • I Know that I Know Notebook


Class Assessment:



  1. Case Study Textbook Applications (CSTA): Prepare for class lectures and activities. Students will apply their understanding of the information in all assigned textbooks to “solve” each assigned case study. Students will be given case study information on individual elementary learners, as well as a sheet explaining how to do case studies and a rubric explaining how they will be evaluated for points. This is a formal written assignment and models of CSTA’s will be provided to help guide you in writing them. 
  1. Field Experience Report::   Students are required to complete at least 32 hours of combined classroom assistance and assessment/tutoring to individual learners. The instructor will make arrangements for your field experience with a partner school. You will be assigned a cooperating teacher. You will assist him or her in the classroom, and tutor at least two learners from the classroom one-on-one. Students are to be on-site at least twice a week for the same amount of time scheduled for regular class sessions. The instructor will be available for consultation and assistance on-site for one hour each week at each of the site schools.

You will:

(a)     create your own informal reading assessment (IRI) using authentic texts that you select and adapt to the standard IRI format. Then you will . . .

(b)    use your IRI to conduct at least 2 practice assessments outside a school setting, then . . .

(c)     conduct pre-assessment for each of 2 learners in a school setting to determine each learner’s reading strengths and needs. After this, you will use the pre-assessment results to . . .

(d)    design a remedial instruction plan for each learner to use during tutoring sessions. This plan must be linked to MoSTEP Show-Me Standards. Next, you will implement your plans for each learner by  . . .

(e)     conducting tutoring sessions with each learner twice a week for 30 minutes each session. Last, you will follow up by . . .

(f)      conducting post-assessment for each learner to determine the effectiveness of your instructional plans and tutoring sessions. 

F Post-Session Reflection Sheets Immediately after tutoring sessions, students will fill out a Post-Session Reflection Sheet (PSRS) to track and analyze their tutoring sessions. You are strongly encouraged to bring your PSRS to the instructor on the day she is scheduled to be on-site.   

     FThe Field Experience Report is the combination of 2 components:

·         Pre-Assessment Profile. This includes the actual assessments and information gained before instruction, as well as a plan of instruction for tutoring based on assessment results. There is a model, a rubric, and directions to guide you in creating your Pre-Assessment Profile. It is to be submitted approximately 2-3 weeks after beginning the field experience in your assigned setting.

·         Post-Assessment Report. After tutoring instruction, a post-assessment is conducted for each learner. The report includes analysis and conclusions regarding results of the post-assessment, as well as analysis and conclusions regarding tutoring. There is a model, a rubric, and directions to guide you in creating your Post-Assessment Report. It is to be submitted together with the Pre-Assessment Profile on the day and time listed in the table of topics and activities at the end of this syllabus.

F Although 2 learners will be pre-assessed, tutored, and post-assessed, you will report on only 1 of them (“Assess two, report on one”). 

F Field Experience Reports will be copied and given to the learners’ teacher(s) who may possibly share them with parents.

     F Note: the completed Field Experience Report is due at the day and time listed in the Course Activity Schedule. No Field Experience Case Study will be accepted or considered for points if submitted after that date & time, resulting in score of 0). 

  1. Final Case Study Application Case study information will be provided. You will be given a form to fill in using knowledge and skills gained from this course to “solve” the reading issue(s) as you did with the CSTA’s.
  1. Course Pre- Assessment and Post-Test: Duringthe first class session, a fill-in-the-blank, short answer assessment will be given covering knowledge, concepts, and skills essential to course objectives. This assessment will receive completion points. Results of the pre-assessment will be used, in part, to determine and finalize class session topics and learning activities.   Post-testing will cover the same knowledge, concepts, and skills as the pre-assessment. The post-test will be a culminating, summative task, will function as half of the final examination on the day scheduled for final examinations, and will earn a raw point score grade. Post-test scores will be compared with pre-assessment scores to determine effectiveness of instruction and student learning.
  1. MoSTEP Standard 1.2.9: Students participate in a process to complete drafts of this standard for their portfolios. You will address the Quality and Performance Indicators by writing at least 3 drafts using materials provided by the instructor. Each draft must be submitted to a different member of the class for peer review (each student is responsible for 3 drafts and 3 peer reviews). Peer review forms will be provided. “Final drafts,” including all peer review sheets, are due on the day listed in the schedule of topics and activities at the end of this syllabus. 


Points for final grade are earned as follows: 


NOTE: final grades are calculated by points only, AND not BY THE percentage POSTED IN eCOMPANION.

Assignment                                                            Points                                      

Course Content Pre-assessment (not scored for accuracy)    needed for final grade

Case Study Textbook Applications (4 @ 45 pts)                    180

Pre-assessments Practice (2 @ 15 pts)                                   30

Post-Session Reflection Sheets (minimum of 10)                    20

MoSTEP Standard 1.2.9                                                           needed for final grade

Field Experience Case Study   

            Pre-Assessment Profile                                              50

            Post-Assessment Report                                             50

Final Case Study Application                                                  35

Course Content Post-Test Final (scored for accuracy)            35

                                                               TOTAL POINTS:      400

A = 375 – 400 points     

B = 360 - 374

C = 345 - 359

D = 330 – 344

F = 329 points or less

Late Submission of Course Materials:



o       Assignments should be submitted on time even if student is absent (excepting emergencies). Use fax, email, ask fellow class member and/or friend to deliver to instructor’s mailbox, rm. 309 on the third floor of Copley Hall, or to box on instructor's office door.

o       Late assignments will result in loss of 1 point per day late. 

o       Assignments submitted before or on their due dates listed in the Schedule of Sessions at the end of this syllabus may be revised for more points until midnight of the last scheduled class session before finals week. 

§         Any assignment submitted after the due date will not be eligible for revision unless it is, due to circumstances that meet criteria for excused absence, including documentation.

§         Assignments must be submitted in person to qualify for evaluation for points. The instructor will not print, evaluate, or score emailed assignments.  The only purpose for emailing assignments is to establish submission date & time.

§         If computer/technology accessibility or problems interfere with meeting a due date, an assignment may be emailed by midnight of the day it is due to establish on-time submission. A hard copy must still be submitted to the instructor to qualify for evaluation for points.

§        Each time an assignment is submitted for re-evaluation, it must include all previous drafts and rubric scoring/written feedback from the instructor. This is to support consistency and fairness in grading. Any revised assignment that does not have previous draft(s) and feedback will be returned to the student until it is accompanied by previous drafts & instructor’s rubric/feedback. 

o       Students are responsible for reading and understanding this syllabus, rubrics and other course materials in eCompanion to know what assignments are required, when they are due, how to do them, how they are scored, and any other pertinent information. Points have been deducted because failed to follow syllabus directions and/or study the rubrics in eCompanion. 

o       Course materials too detailed or lengthy for this syllabus (rubrics, directions, handouts, etc.) will be provided for students to download and print from eCompanion. (NOTE: before printing, adjust the font size to avoid overlarge type and excessive amounts of pages!)

o       Questions and/or concerns regarding assignments will be handled before or after class, during breaks, during office hours, by appointment, or by phone or email. If a question or concern is raised that the instructor deems important for the entire class, the instructor will inform the class via email. Ideas for improvement are most welcome! A significant portion of this course is the result of previous students' creative and helpful ideas.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:


·        Email is essential to this course. All students are to check their PirateMail at least twice a week. Typically, several days may pass when no email is sent, only to be followed by several emails in one day. Students are to notify the instructor as soon as possible if they have difficulty accessing their PirateMail accounts. Students who do not regularly check email run the risk of losing points on assignments, misunderstanding important information, not having materials needed for an activity or assignment, etc.

  • In the event of an absence from tutoring/observation session, students are required to call and personally notify the cooperating teacher and, if possible, speak to the learner being tutored, apologizing for the absence. Students must obtain the school and, if applicable, teacher phone numbers before beginning involvement as tutor.
  • If students are representing themselves and Park University as pre-service educators, they are required to arrive on time to their assigned schools dressed in a professional manner—no bare midriffs, sagging pants, tight tops, etc. If the instructor is on tutoring site, she will send home anyone who is inappropriately attired. Students should ask the instructor if they are in doubt about appropriate attire.
  • Making/Receiving phone calls and/or texting during class sessions is rude to fellow class members and disrespectful to the instructor. You will be asked to put away personal electronic communication devices unless you have prior approval.
  • Computers can make it easier to do assignments; however, students must recognize that technology can also cause problems--printers run out of ink, hard drives crash.   Be sure to save copies of your work to disk, hard drive, and print out paper copies for backup purposes.
  • Professional demeanor & dispositions are essential evidence that students are ready to be classroom teachers--passing grades on assignments are not sufficient. The short form of the Student Self-Evaluation of Professional Teaching Dispositions is available in eCompanion. Students will evaluate themselves; the instructor will evaluate each student’s teaching dispositions. On the day scheduled for the final examination, students and the instructor will exchange and sign their completed evaluations.  All completed dispositions evaluations will be collected by the instructor for data collection. The purpose of this is to give feedback to students to help them reflect upon and develop the degree and depth of the attitudes and behaviors expected of outstanding educators.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:









Jan 15

? TOPIC: Introductions & syllabus: procedures, policies, dispositions, CSTA’s (use/model


? DUE: Course Content Pre-assessment



Jan 17

? TOPIC: Assessment of Reading Difficulties and IRI structure

? ACTIVITY: Go over CSTA rubric and complete draft in class (students will need all required texts)

? GIVE: CSTA #1, Aidan (decoding needs)

·          To be ready for Jan 22, students select authentic texts & gather existing typescripts on their own time



Jan 22

? TOPIC:   Assessment, cont’d

? ACTIVITY: Work in class on creating IRI using authentic texts



Jan 24

? TOPIC: Assessment

? ACTIVITY: Practice using created IRI’s

? GIVE: CSTA #2, Sara (decoding needs)

? DUE Case Study Text Application #1, Aidan





Jan 29

? TOPIC: Reading Deficits, Differences, & Disabilities—Who, What, & Why?



Jan 31

? TOPIC: Reading Difficulties—What, & Why? Cont’d

? GIVE: CSTA #3, Jeremy (comprehension needs)

? DUE: CSTA #2, Sara



Feb 5

? TOPIC: Reading Difficulties—What, & Why? Cont’d



Feb 7

? TOPIC: Implementing Assessment Results: Designing Instruction

? TOPIC: What Schools Are Using: Lexiles, Jolly Phonics, Fundamentals, DIBELS, other

? TOPIC: Instructional Approaches & Strategies--Walker materials

? GIVE: CSTA #4, Monique (decoding & comprehension needs)

? DUE: CSTA #3, Jeremy



Feb 12

? TOPIC: Decoding/Fluency Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice--Echo/NIM (students)

? TOPIC: Decoding Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice--Word Sorts (students)

? TOPIC: Decoding Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice--Glass Analysis (instructor)



Feb 14

?TOPIC: Comprehension Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice—Visualization (students)

? TOPIC: Comprehension Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice--Graphic Orgs.(students)

? TOPIC: Decoding/Comprehension Strategy Instruction/Modeling/Practice: Readers’ Theatre

? TOPIC: Decoding/Comprehension Hands-on Strategies/Activities (instructor)

? DUE Case Study Text Application #4, Monique



Feb 19


? TOPIC: Flow of Assessment & Instruction (instructor models process)

NOTE: Instructor will arrange for students to meet specialist & cooperating teachers; students are to schedule a 1 hour classroom observation, get-acquainted session before 2/26 and a regular schedule for field experience w/cooperating teacher




Feb 21

? TOPIC: Forging a relationship with educational insanity





Feb 26


? Conduct pre-assessment/assist in classroom

NOTE: Students begin Post-Session Reflection Sheets after each assessment/tutoring session starting w/1st assessment session



Feb 28

? Conduct/complete pre-assessment, assist in classroom



Mar 4

? Begin tutoring (if possible), assist in classroom



Mar 6

? Tutor, assist in classroom

NOTE: This should be the last day for pre-assessment


Week of March 10 - 14: Spring Recess – Students may need to tutor/assist at assigned sites



Mar 18

? Tutor, assist in classroom

NOTE: This MUST be the last day for pre-assessment



Mar 20

? Tutor, assist in classroom

? DUE: Pre-Assessment Profile (include pre-assessment of 2nd learner)



Mar 25

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                            



Mar 27

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                            



Apr 1

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                            

? DUE Case Study Text Application #4



Apr 3

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                                                               



Apr 8

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                            




Apr 10

? Tutor, assist in classroom                                                                     



Apr 15

? Tutor, assist in classroom/begin post-assessment

NOTE: let learners know about your last day at their school!!!



Apr 17

? Tutor, assist in classroom/post-assessment



Apr 22

? Conduct post-assessment



Apr 24

? Conduct post-assessment



Apr 29





May 1



o DUE: Last day to submit assignments that qualify for revision

o DUE: Field Experience Case Study (will not be scored if submitted after midnight)




o DUE: Case Study Application “Final Exam” (done in class; may use notes & texts)

o DUE: Course Content Post-Test (done in class; closed book, no notes)


Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85-86

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 85
Plagiarism—the appropriation or imitation of the language or ideas of another person and presenting them as one's original work—sometimes occurs through carelessness or ignorance.  Students who are uncertain about proper documentation of sources should consult their instructors.  Assignments that are submitted containing text taken directly—verbatim and/or with wording merely rearranged—automatically earn zero points, and must be revised until the assignment correctly quotes and cites works used, with the remaining text rewritten according to the student's own understanding.  Submitting others' work as one's own is a grave academic offense and carries serious consequences.  These consequences may also include the following:  
o a conference with the instructor
o a report given to the Associate Dean and/or higher college administrators for determination of further consequences
o a failing grade for the entire course

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  3. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  4. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  5. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  6. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  7. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2007-2008 Undergraduate Catalog Page 87-88

• Students may have no more than two (2) absences.
• A third absence will drop the final course grade by one letter grade.
• A fifth absence will drop the final course grade by two letter grades.
• It is considered standard professional courtesy for the student to notify the instructor by phone or email ahead of time of any and all absences or late arrival/early departures (excepting emergencies).  
• In the event of an absence from tutoring session, students are required to call and personally notify the cooperating teacher and, if possible, speak to the learner being tutored, apologizing for the absence.  Students must obtain the school and, if applicable, teacher phone numbers before beginning involvement as tutor.
• The following will be unconditionally excused and require documentation:  medical or dental emergency, student's hospitalization, serious illness of close family member, natural disasters (e.g., fires, flood, etc.), jury duty, unexpected military call-up, death in family.
• The following will not be considered for excused status in excess of the two absences allowed:  job schedule, wedding or other family event, other class schedule, and other situations that are avoidable by responsible planning.  If students are in doubt, ask the instructor first.  The instructor will uphold the policies set out in this syllabus.
• Late arrival and early departures of 15 minutes or more past the scheduled class starting and ending time each count ¼ of an absence.

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Additional Information:


Writing skills are an essential part of all typewritten assignments. Errors in basic writing skills, and failure to proofread and/or correctly use the model for formal written assignments result in loss of points. Your future administrators expect their teachers to have the basic writing skills they will be teaching to children; teachers need the respect and cooperation from both administrators and parents that clear communication helps create. Therefore, all written and spoken communication will be subject to correction.  (This includes the instructor!)  

To avoid point loss, as well as save time and energy, students are expected to: 

(1)        Use the “Model for Formal Writing” provided in eCompanion. It will show you how typewritten assignments are to be formatted. It will also provide you with examples of proper technical writing skills, including examples of the most common errors that are responsible for the highest loss of points.  

(2)        Use “Proofreading Tips” provided in eCompanion. carefully for technical skills errors, missing words, missing letters, making all necessary revisions; and

(3)        Make certain terms and phrases are used correctly for meaning, and that what is written can be easily understood by a parent, another teacher, and/or administrator.   All assignments receiving rubric points include a score for correct basic writing skills. 

CORE ASSESSMENT: All Park University courses must include a core assessment that measures the relevant Departmental Learning Outcomes. The purpose of this assessment is to determine if expectations have been met concerning mastery of learning outcomes across all instructional modalities. Because good evaluation requires multiple assessments representing all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, the core assessment for this course is a combination of three (3) assignments:       

(1)     Post-Assessment Report, a summative, authentic performance mastery task that demonstrates what a student has achieved regarding the standards for knowledge, skills, and dispositions required by the course. 

(2)     Final Case Study Application. This is a summative mastery task demonstrating what students have achieved regarding the standards for knowledge and skills required by the course. 

(3)     Course Content Post-Test. This is also a summative measure of students’ mastery of essential terms and knowledge required by the course. The Final Case Study Application and Course Content Post-Test comprise the Final Examination. All together, the three assignments account for 25% of the total grade. The descriptions and directions for each of the three Core Assessments are included in the numbered list of assignments below Core Rubrics.

EDE 391 Core Assessment RubricBibliography:

Bader, Lois.  (2005)  Bader Reading and Language Inventory;  Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.

Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-86709-519-9

Clay, Marie (2006). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement Revised 2nd edition.

            Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-325-00929-5

Fountas, Irene C., Pinnell, Gay Su. (2006) Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency: Thinking,

Talking, and Writing About Reading, K-8. New York: Heinemann. 


Goodman, Yetta M., Marek, Ann M. (1996).  Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Revaluing Readers

and Reading. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 1-878450-85-9

Gunning, Thomas G. (2006). Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties, 3rd ed.

            Boston: Pearson Education Publishers.   ISBN: 0-205-44526-5

Lyons, Carol A. (2003) Teaching Struggling Readers: How to Use Brain-Based Research to Maximize Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-325-00435-8

McGuinness, Diane. (1999). Why Our Children Can't Read and What We Can Do About It: A

Scientific Revolution in Reading. New York: Touchstone ISBN 0684853566

Opitz, Michael F.  (2000)  Rhymes and Reasons:  Literature and Language Play for Phonological

            Awareness; Heinemann Publishers.


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Last Updated:1/7/2008 2:35:36 PM