CJ231 Introduction to Law Enforcement

for S2T 2011

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Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.


CJ 231 Introduction to Law Enforcement


S2T 2011 DL


White, Harry O.,, Jr.


Adjunct Professor


Ph.D. Urban Studies (Administration of Justice)
MPA, Organizational Behavior; M.Ed., Criminal Justice Education;
B.S., Administration of Justice.

Office Location

Virtual, Mountain Time Zone

Office Hours

Virtual, Mountain Time Zone

Daytime Phone




Semester Dates

March 14 - May 8, 2011

Class Days


Class Time


Credit Hours



Schmalleger, F. J. and Worrall, J. L. (2010). Policing Today. Prentice Hall
ISBN:  0-205-51551-7

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email helpdesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the http://parkonline.org website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.

Course Description:
This is an introduction to the law enforcement segment of the criminal justice system, with an examination of the history and development of law enforcement, especially in the United States. The various job and career opportunities in law enforcement will be reviewed. 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:

Student-oriented discussions of assigned readings and topics are the focus of this course.  It is expected that students will be prepared to engage in discussions of all assigned materials in the threaded discussion portion of the course activities. Students will assume the lead voice in all discussion with the role of the professor to facilitate, guide, encourage and ensure focus. All assignments are designed to evaluate the student's achievement of the performance objectives.  Tests are not for the purpose of grade assignment. Rather, to ascertain the level of understanding of the basic concepts of law enforcement and policing.    All materials contained in the text book are the responsibility of the student.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Demonstrate a basic understanding of law enforcement.
  2. Discuss the various career opportunities available in the profession.
  3. Appraise the role of law enforcement in a free society.

  Instructor Learning Outcomes
  1. Explain the concept of chain of command and authority.
  2. Interpret police professionalism
  3. Summarize police role models:  crime control, order maintenance, & service.
  4. Interpret discretionary conduct and accountability
Core Assessment:

  • Quizzes & exams

  • Class participation, quizzes & exams

  • Papers, presentations, group &/or individual activities with written assignments (see CJ205)

Class Assessment:

      There are practice quizzes during the course that are designed to reinforce and emphasize important material. These quizzes are not graded, rather, designed to familiarize the student with material that may be included in the mid-term and final examinations. Additionally, there may be other assessment mechanisms used to evaluate level of comprehension of the material.  In order to get credit for any graded item in this course, including the mid term or final examination a grade of 60 percent must be achieved.  The requirement is based on the premise that it is inconsistent with criminal justice professionals to reward mediocrity; therefore, a reasonable grasp of the concepts can only be demonstrated by achieving this “passing” score.  

           Test questions may be a combination of multiple choice, true/false, completion and essay.  Tests cannot be made up, ex post facto, but can be taken in advance if it is known that one will be administered.   It is a matter of fairness because once the examination is administered there is potential for compromise.  Therefore, make-up examinations are discouraged and will be available only for emergency reasons, appropriately documented. 

         PAPER: The paper should be approximately 5-7 pages in length and in proper format (only APA style will be accepted). This paper should be submitted with a title page and reference list citing five (5) sources in addition to the text.  The in-text citations must indicate the source of the material. If a source is not cited it could be grounds for plagiarism so caution must be exercised when using sources.  The topic for each paper must be related to some aspect of law enforcement. The discussion should include background information about the topic and some observations or analysis about the topic. You should utilize at least five (5) sources in addition to the information provided in the textbook.
The APA sample essay template must be used in formatting the core assessment essay
Wikipedia, Answers.com, Encarta, Encyclopedia and similar sources are not an appropriate source for any academic paper and should not be used as a source for any activity in this course.

         Topics must be approved by Dr. White or no credit will be given.  Once a topic is chosen the student must send an email to Dr. White indicating the subject and the list of five (5) potential sources. The sources must be specifically identified including author, title, publication, and URL (if appropriate). The approval must be completed not later than Sunday of week six. The topic will then be approved or disappoved with specific comments or suggestions. A copy of the request and approved email must be attached to the final paper.
 THE PAPER ESSAY IS DUE BY THE END OF THE SEVENTH WEEK OF CLASS. Essays will be graded on the basis of proper format, grammar, spelling, and thoroughness. Appropriate documents and resources will be made available in the webliography which address APA format and structure.  Further, any questions can be addressed to Dr. White either using the "office" option button or email. 
        Class participation is considered a major component of this course.  Each week there will be discussion questions posed for comment by each student.  Additionally, it is expected that students will engage others in discussing the issues raised in the thread.  To receive maximum credit for participation there is both a quality and quantity measurement. Quality is the degree to which the student addresses specific issues and comments of others.  Quantity is the absolute number of postings.  For example one could have 6 or 7 postings that did not relate to the issue and no credit would be awarded.  However, if the minimum number of posting were made that directly focused on the discussion issue then maximum credit would be awarded. The issue of quality and quantity are interrelated because simply making two comments to a couple of postings and leaving no other evidence of being involved in the discussion is insufficient for granting credit.
The discussion thread is a "virtual classroom" which suggests participation throughout the discussion period. The opportunity to make comments and participate is limited to question 1 (through Wednesday) and question 2 (through Sunday). Comments or postings after those dates will not be evaluated for grading purposes. Additionally, single day participation during the window of opportunity is inconsistent with the virtual classroom concept and will result in a lower evaluation as to quality.
Posting on a single day is inconsistent with the virtual classroom concept of discussion and debate among colleagues and will affect the participation grade. Responses to Dr. White's comments are not included in the quantity component of the grading scheme.
The use of resources such as Answers, Wikipedia, Encarta, Encyclopedia, Dictionary or other similar sources are inappropriate for any aspect of this course. If using outside sources, which is certainly acceptable, they must be given attribution and copy and paste is not permitted. The source should be paraphrased in your own word.



Student evaluation will be based on individual performance on examinations, written reports, and class participation.  The total points possible points is 400 and alphabetical grades are based on the following scale.

Mid-Term Examination .......................100 points 
Final Examination .............................100 points (Core assessment)
Paper essay.................................... 100 points (Core assessment)
Participation (discussion thread)......... 100 points (Core assessment)
A = 360 - 400; B= 320 - 359; C = 280 - 319; D = 240 - 279; F = < 240  

As a matter of personal preference I discourage incomplete grades. I understand that there are unique or special circumstances that make this option seem to be an acceptable solution. However, such a grade place an additional burden on students during their subsequent term of study. Having to focus on the requirements of last term as well as their current term could cause stress that will negatively impact performance on both. Assignment of an “I” may result in: (1) an expansion of the requirement; (2) an increase in performance standard; or (3) both.  Park University policy on incomplete grades is as follows: “An incomplete grade (I) may be issued only upon completion of a “Contract for Incomplete” signed by the student and the instructor and placed on file in the Office of the Registrar or Campus Center. An Incomplete will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for the course. An “I” indicates that the coursework was not completed in the time allotted in the semester/term through no fault of the student as determined by the instructor. Final assessment of the grade is postponed to no later than 60 days after the last day of the semester/term in which the “I” was received. Failure on the part of the student to complete the work will result in an “F.” A student may submit a written request for one 30-day extension beyond the 60 days. After approval by the instructor, the request is filed in the Office of the Registrar or Campus Center. " 

Late Submission of Course Materials:

Even though this course is asynchronous there must be a schedule as a guide. Assignments and examinations cannot be made up, ex post facto. All course requirements and due dates are clearly indicated in the syllabus and outline. It is a matter of fairness because once the assignments and examinations have been posted there is potential for compromise. Therefore, make-up assignments and examinations are discouraged and will be available only for emergency reasons, appropriately documented. Further, the date due is the last but not the first date any assignment can be submitted. In other words papers, these tasks can be completed or accomplished at any time, before the deadline. It is a good idea to accomplish the task early so that personal events do not preclude a timely completion of the assignment.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
This is an online course which involves a great deal of participation in the threaded discussions. It is expected that all students will engage one another in a professional and courteous manner. The online classroom is an environment whereby opinions and positions can be openly expressed, regardless of their popularity. To that end any personal criticism or ridicule is not appropriate.  Debate, on the other hand, is encouraged. It is believed that exchange of different ideas will result in the intellectual growth of everyone.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

Week 1
March 14 - 20, 2011
Chapter 1: Origins and evolution of American policing
Chapter 2: Policing in America

Week 2
March 21 - 27, 2011
Chapter 3: Police and the criminal justice system
Chapter 4: Law enforcement agencies and their organization

Week 3
March 28 - April 3, 2011
Chapters 5: Becoming a cop
Chapter 6: Police subculture

Week 4
April 4 - 10, 2011
Chapters 7: Career concerns
Chapter 8: Patrol, peacekeeping and investigations
Mid-Term Examination

Week 5
April 11 - 17, 2011
Chapter 9: Intelligence, information and special problems
Chapter10: Community policing and community involvement

Week 6
April 18 - 24, 2011
Chapter 11: Policing and the law
Chapter 12: Civil liability and accountability
Core assessment essay topic approval deadline 2400 Sunday September 26, 2010

Week 7
April 25 - May 1, 2011
Chapter 13: Police discretion and behavior
Chapter 14: Deviance, ethics and professionalism
Essay due NLT 2400 Sunday May 1, 2011

Week 8
May 2 - 8, 2011
Chapter 15: The use of force
Chapter 16:  The future of policing
Proctored Final Examination

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty (www.park.edu/current or http://www.park.edu/faculty/).from Park University 2010-2011 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2010-2011 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92-93

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: An attendance report of "P" (present) will be recorded for students who have logged in to the Online classroom at least once during each week of the term. Recording of attendance is not equivalent to participation. Participation grades will be assigned by each instructor according to the criteria in the Grading Policy section of the syllabus.

Park University 2010-2011 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95-96

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Additional Information:

There is important information available to Park criminal justice students at the following sites (URL).




This material is protected by copyright and can not be reused without permission of Dr. White.

Last Updated:2/5/2011 1:53:54 PM