ED546 Advanced Diagnosis and Remediation of Rdng Difficulties

for S2P 2010

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School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


ED 546 Advanced Diagnosis andRemediation of Rdng Difficulties


S2P 2010 EDN


Estes, Judi Simmons


Assistant Professor of Education


B.S. Elementary Education
M.S. Special Education; M.S. Psychology: Mental Health Services
PhD Behavioral Psychology

Office Location

By appointment, Oak Park High School; Room 3

Office Hours

By appointment

Daytime Phone




Semester Dates

March 15-May 7

Class Days


Class Time

5:00 - 9:30 PM


ED521 Introduction to Literacy, or at least one other literacy course.

Credit Hours


Gunning, Thomas G. (2006). Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties, 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson Education Publishers.   ISBN: 0-205-44526-5

Johns, Jerry L. (2008). Basic Reading Inventory, 10th Ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

Optional Reading: Johnston, Peter H. (2004). Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Children’s Learning. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-3899

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Course Description:
ED546 Advanced Diagnosis and Remediation of Reading Difficulties: Explores characteristics, identification and intervention strategies appropriate for students with reading difficulties, includes the study of formal and informal assessments, miscue analysis and recommendation for instructional materials. Examines both traditional and innovative means of teaching reading toe students with disabilities. Teachers will practice administering, interpreting and reporting diagnostic results.

Educational Philosophy:

The instructor's educational philosophy is to encourage learners to share, discuss, and work collaboratively in a climate of mutual respect; thus to build a collaborative learning community.  The instructor will endeavor to design the classroom environment to maximize engagement.  In addition, a constuctivist philosophy will be demonstrated in that students and teachers will be co-researchers to further knowledge of the subject matter. Student engagement is not the instructor's task alone; making responsibility for making the most of the learning opportunities of the course will also be expected of each student. A variety of instructional formats will be used including lectures, readings, and learning groups with the goal of motivating all learners to self-reflect and analyze how  new and/or enhanced knowledge and skills can be applied to his/her future educational practices.
In regard to philosophy specifically related to reading the following quote is one to build on:
"Reading can be compared to the performance of a symphony orchestra. This analogy illustrates three points. First, like the performance of a symphony, reading is a holistic act. In other words, while reading can be analyzed into sub-skills such as discriminating letters and identifying words, performing the sub-skills one at a time does not constitute reading. Reading can be said to take place only when the parts are put together in a smooth, integrated performance. Second, success in reading comes from practice over long periods of time, like skill in playing musical instruments. Indeed, it is a lifelong endeavour. Third, as with a musical score, there may be more than one interpretation of a text. The interpretation depends upon the background of the reader, the purpose for reading, and the context in which the reading occurs" (Anderson Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985, p. 7, cited in Mason & Au, 1986, p. 3).

In addition, in my experience as a learning disabilities teacher and reading specialist I found a significant relationship between a child's social and emotional development and their confidence in and ability to read. I will make references to this relationship during our time together. It is partially due to my interest in this interplay between emotions and academic success that I veered into the field of mental health and then later behavioral psychology.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Appreciate and respond effectively to affective needs of students with reading problems.
  2. Communicate effectively with learners, parents, and professional peers regarding reading problems.
  3. Become familiar with a variety of assessment tools used to diagnose reading problems.
  4. Select, administer, interpret, write reports of informal and formal reading assessment/test results.
  5. Apply assessment/test results to create and implement an appropriate and effective corrective program of reading.
  6. List, describe, and apply knowledge of variety of corrective/adaptive reading strategies, instructional methods, and materials that will help students with reading difficulties, deficits, or disabilities to improve their use of text for learning.
  7. Develop strategies for using technology to enhance the teaching of reading.
  8. Become familiar with a variety of techniques that can be used in the general education classroom setting that will allow the student with disabilities to access the general education curriculum.
  9. Demonstrate critical self-reflection to analyze and adjust instructional practices with the goal of improving student learning

Core Assessment:

Class Assessment:
  1. Field Experience Case Study (Pre-Assessment Profile (50 points) and Post-Assessment Report-100 points)-detailed description, directions, and forms will be provided in class: Students are to select one learner and administer a BRI. The ideal would be to work with a learner who has been identified as a struggling reader. It is permissible to work with your own child or other relative, a neighbor, one of your students (if already teaching), or friend’s child. Students will:

(a) conduct one practice BRI with a colleague during class

(b) gain signed permission to conduct one actual BRI pre-assessment for actual learner to determine reading strengths and needs, then

(c)  design remedial instruction containing outcome statements linked to MO-Step, Missouri Show-Me standards and appropriate grade level expectations (GLEs)  

(d)  immediately after tutoring sessions, students will fill out a Post-Session Reflection Sheet (PSRS) to track and analyze their instruction. 

(e)  conduct remedial instruction based on the pre-assessment, then follow up by

(f)   conducting a BRI post-assessment to determine effectiveness of instruction. 

(g)  write the Post-Assessment Report

Students are to use their PSRSs to confer with each other regarding successes and failures during assessment & tutoring, offering feedback, suggestions, and receive guidance from the instructor. While there is really too little time to do full-scale tutoring, there may be enough meaningful difference in post-assessment due to the one-on-one nature of the sessions.     

  1.  Strategy Demonstrations (50 points): Each student will be assigned a reading strategy, then present it and teach it to the class during scheduled class sessions. The instructor and class members will learn and practice the strategy, then provide feedback.

3.  Course Pre- Assessment (10 points) and Post-Test (50 points):  During the first class session, a fill-in-the-blank, short answer assessment will be given covering knowledge, concepts, and skills essential to course objectives. This assessment will receive completion points only for a grade. Results of the pre-assessment will be used, in part, to determine and finalize class session topics and learning activities.   Post-testing will cover the same knowledge, concepts, and skills as the pre-assessment. The post-test will be a culminating, summative task; Post-test scores will be compared with pre-assessment scores to determine effectiveness of instruction and student learning.

4.      Independent Testing and/or Professional Activities (100 points): This category has been established to accommodate individual leaning needs and interests. Based on your current understanding of the reading process, diagnosis of reading and writing and remedial reading instruction, you may elect any of the following projects to total 100 points. Completed activities may be turned in at any time. Activities must be completed and turned in on the last day of class to receive credit.
Independent Project:

a. Write a proposal stating at least 2 goals and an action plan for achieving them. Submit the proposal for approval to the instructor. Once approved, students will use resources at hand to help achieve their goals. The textbook must be used as a resource. 

b.     On the last class, submit a paper that includes the following as underlined headings:

·   Goals

·   Action Plan

·   Achievement of Goals—tell what happened, and include successes and difficulties citing explicit evidence where possible. Choose from the options listed below or if you have another idea, please discuss it with me.

·   Resources—the textbook required for this course must be cited along with a specific description of how it was used; all other resources used must also be cited & described.

·   Reflective Evaluation—give your thoughts, opinions on the overall project—what would you do the same way again? What would you do differently? What were the obstacles? What was helpful? Where did the results lead you, (i.e., what do you want to do with what you learned, what questions still remain?)

The paper does not need to be of any certain page length. It will be scored by rubric. (100 points)

·       Language Experience Diagnostic Evaluation: 
            Elicit 2 language experience stories from an appropriate level reader, or l language experience story from 2 readers. Turn in the stories and a limited typed summary of your analysis. Analysis criteria will be discussed in class (100 points for two or 50 points for 1). 
The Word Writing Café:
      This measure is meant to measure a student’s ability to write and spell words correctly. It also shows interests, strengths and weaknesses. It also shows the complexity of vocabulary words students use and write. Give this assessment to 10 to 12 students and score the assessment. Turn in the assessments along with a 2 page typed analysis/summary of your impressions of your students’ abilities (100 points).
·       Metacognitive Interview: 
      Conduct an individual metacognitive interview with 2 students. Follow the Metacognitive Interview instructions. Turn in a copy of text, a completed rating sheet for each student, and your audio or video tape of each student (100 points).
·       Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA):
      Conduct an individual assessment with 2 students. Turn in the assessment sheets along with a 1to 2 page summary of your impressions and analysis of your two readers (100 points for 2 or 50 points for 1).
·       Professional Journals.:       
         Identify a topic of personal interest related to reading diagnosis and/or instruction. Locate and read two articles on the topic in professional journals. Suggested journals: Reading Teacher, Language Arts, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, and English Teacher. Following APA format, turn in a ½ page typed annotated bibliographic entry for each article read (50 points). 
·       Review a website devoted to reading: 
      Select a website that’s new to you. Learn how to utilize the site and evaluate its instructional qualities. Report your evaluation by completing a 1 page typed summary about the site. Share the website and what you learned with the class. Discuss with me when you will share the site (75 points).
     Listening Comprehension:       
      How to assess listening comprehension will be discussed in class. Turn in a 1 page typed paper following the “Analysis of Reading Performance” format of the/BRI Report (25 points).
·       Webbing a Text Chapter: 
      This activity is designed to give you credit for text readings and more importantly, to help you focus attention on important concepts and suggestions identified by our authors. Decide which chapter is of most interest/value to you. Demonstrate your understanding of this chapter by developing a web identifying the important points the authors are making. You will be asked to turn in/share your web with the class when that chapter is discussed (50 points).
·       Miscue Analysis: 
      Conduct an individual Miscue Analysis with one student. Complete and turn in the text script, student’s audio reading and questioning, and the completed scoring sheets. This includes an analysis of student’s strengths and weaknesses (100 points).
·       Woodcock Johnson Diagnostic Reading Battery: 
      Secure a computerized scoring disk for the Woodcock. Purchase/secure a record booklet. Administer the WJ-RB to two different people (not students who may have a learning disability). Turn in the record booklet, your scoring and a 1 page typed reflection for each evaluation (75 points). 
5.       5.   Chapter Response Reflections (5 pts each for 15 chapters = 75 points total)-Each student will be expected to read each chapter and then bring the following to class: a) 5 key points from the chapter readings, b) 5 questions for clarification regarding the chapter readings, and c) 5 ideas for class discussions of the chapter readings. These can be provided in bullet point format.
6.    Portfolio Entries: If required for certification and/or program completion, students are to complete written entries on MoSTEP 1.2 for this course. Full points will be given for completed entries that have been reviewed by one of the portfolio tutors located in the Academic Support Center. Tutors may be contacted on an appointment basis through the Academic Support Center on the Park campus 816-584-6330. If a portfolio is not required for certification and/or program completion, full points will be given gratis.
Assignments should be submitted on time even if student is absent.
All assignments are to be submitted through e-companion.



Points Per assignment

Total assignment


Course Content Pre-assessment (not graded)




Chapter Response Reflections

15 @ 5 pts each



Field Experience Case Study: Pre-Assessment Profile/BRI  




Field Experience Case Study: Post-Session Reflection Sheets

4 @ 10 points each



Field Experience Case Study: Post-Assessment BRI and Report 




 Teaching Strategy




Individual Project 




Course Content Post-Test Final (graded for accuracy)




Grand Total



Final Letter Grade

Please read this carefully. There are a total of 475 points possible for the course. Following are the points/letter grade scale, A-C. D= 60-69% and F= anything below 59%.

               428-475= A
              380-427= B 
               333-379= C


Late Submission of Course Materials:
Late assignments will result in loss of 1 point per day late.  

COURSE INCOMPLETE: Incompletes are strictly limited to students who regularly attend and submit assignment on time and whose situation meets the criteria described in unconditionally excused absences. A contract listing pending assignments and final due date is required. It is Park policy that all incompletes be finalized in 60 days. In compliance with this policy, the instructor will compute the course grade with whatever assignments have been submitted at the end of 60 days.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
Students are to demonstrate the same dispositions, behavior, and responsibility they would expect from learners and peers in their own classrooms. Therefore, the following will apply to all students enrolled in this course:

·       Email is essential to this course. All students will need to check their PirateMail on a regular basis--at least twice a week. Typically, several days may pass when no email is sent, only to be followed by several emails in one day. Students are to notify the instructor as soon as possible if they have difficulty accessing their PirateMail accounts. Students who do not regularly check email run the risk of losing points on assignments, misunderstanding important information, not having materials needed for an activity or assignment, etc.

  • In the event of an absence from tutoring/observation session, students are required to call and personally notify the cooperating teacher and, if possible, speak to the learner being tutored, apologizing for the absence. Students must obtain the school and, if applicable, teacher phone numbers before beginning involvement as tutor.
  • If students are representing themselves and Park University as pre-service educators, they are required to arrive on time to their assigned schools dressed in a professional manner—no bare midriffs, sagging pants, tight tops, etc. If the instructor is on tutoring site, she will send home anyone who is inappropriately attired. Students should ask the instructor if they are in doubt about appropriate attire.
  • Making/Receiving phone calls and/or texting during class sessions is rude to fellow class members and disrespectful to the instructor. Personal electronic communication devices should not be used during class sessions unless there is an emergency.
  • Speak and we will listen—with respect, from everyone. Students should also exhibit polite consideration when speaking.
  • Computers can make it easier to do assignments; however, students must recognize that technology can also cause problems--printers run out of ink, hard drives crash.   Be sure to save copies of your work to disk, hard drive, and print out paper copies for backup purposes.
  • Professional demeanor & dispositions are essential evidence that students are ready to be classroom teachers--passing grades on assignments are not sufficient. The Professional Teaching Dispositions will be presented to students on the first day of class. The instructor will go over the dispositions with students at that time. Students will evaluate themselves, as well as by the instructor, cooperating teachers, and possibly site administrators on the teaching dispositions. The Dispositions Short Form will be used for all evaluations of dispositions in EDE 391. The purpose of this is to give feedback to students to help them reflect upon and develop the degree and depth of the attitudes and behaviors expected of outstanding educators.  

§          Teaching Dispositions: Professional demeanor & dispositions are essential evidence that students belong in the classroom—passing grades on assignments are not sufficient. If teaching dispositions are to be evaluated for program completion/certification, the appropriate form will be obtained and used.   Students will be evaluated by the instructor and will also evaluate themselves. The purpose of this is to give feedback to students to help them reflect upon and develop the degree and depth of the attitudes and behaviors expected of outstanding educators. 

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

Tentative Class Topic/Activity Schedule


Topics/ Activities



  • Introductions    
  • Syllabus review
  • IRI Overview, Introduction; Practice
  • Assign strategies
  • Essential Knowledge/Terms Pre-Assessment

·         Read for class discussion: Gunning Chapter 1,Introduction to Literacy Difficulties,  p. 1-24; Chapter 3, Overview of Assessment, p. 59-80; Chapter 4, Placing students and Monitoring Progress, p. 83-124

·         Bring chapter reflections to class; e-mail copy to Judi by 8:00 a.m. morning of class



  • Diagnosis & Remediation: What, Why, & How
  • Case Study—Intro, model
  • Assessment & TESTING
  • World of the Struggling Reader

·         Read for class discussion: Gunning Chapter 2, Factors Involved in Reading and Writing Difficulties, p. 25-57 and; Chapter 5, Assessment of Reading and Writing Processes, p. 125-155; Chapter 6, Assessment of Cognitive, School, and Home Factors, p. 157-183

·        Bring chapter reflections to class; e-mail copy to Judi by 8:00 a.m. day of class
·         Bring student profile to class

·        PSRS from tutoring


No class in lieu of conducting tutoring

Conduct one one-hour tutoring session
 Conduct pre-assessment



  • Instructional strategies/practice
  • WDRB Intro & Practice
  • Tutoring Debriefing

·        Read for class discussion: Gunning and Chapter 7, Emergent Literacy and Prevention Programs, p. 185-216; Chapter 8, Teaching Phonics, High-frequency Words, and Fluency, p.217-296; Chapter 9, Syllabic Morphemic, and contextual Analysis and Dictionary Strategies, p. 297-326 

·     Bring chapter reflections to class; e-mail to Judi by 8:00 a.m. day of class
  •  Strategy Demo: Echo/NIM
  •  PSRS from tutoring
  •  Bring pre-assessment to class; e-mail to Judi by 8:00 a.m. by day of class



No class in lieu of conducting tutoring

Conduct one one-hour tutoring session


  • Tutoring Debriefings
  • Instructional strategies/practice
  • Conducting a Post-test with your student

·        Read for class discussion: Gunning Chapter 10, Building Vocabulary, p. 327-350 and Chapter 11, Building Comprehension, p. 351-400; Chapter 12, Reading to Learn and Remember in the Content Areas, p. 401-453

·    Bring chapter reflections to class; e-mail to Judi by 8:00 a.m. day of class

  • PSRS from tutoring
  • Strategy Demo: Graphic Organizers
  • Strategy Demo: Visualization
  • Strategy Demo: Readers’ Theater


No class in lieu of conducting tutoring

Conduct one one-hour tutoring sessions
Conduct post-evaluation
E-mail individual project to Judi by 8:00 a.m.


  • Tutoring Debriefings
  • Final Case Study Application
  • Course Content Post-Test


·         Read for class discussion: Gunning Chapter 13, Building Writing Strategies, p. 455-492; Chapter 14, Tier II and III Programs for students of All Ages, p. 495-526 and Chapter 15, Organization of intervention and Corrective Programs

·    Bring chapter reflections to class; e-mail to Judi by 8:00 a.m.
  •  Field Experience Report (add Post-Assessment Report to Pre-Assessment Profile) due by 8:00 a.m.; bring copy to class 
  • PSRS from tutoring

Academic Honesty:
As a learning community, the University upholds the highest standards of academic integrity in all its academic activities, by faculty, staff, administrators and students. Academic integrity involves much more than respecting intellectual property rights. It lies at the heart of learning, creativity, and the core values of the University. Those who learn, teach, write, publish, present, or exhibit creative works are advised to familiarize themselves with the requirements of academic integrity and make every effort to avoid possible offenses against it, knowingly or unknowingly. Park University 2009-2010 Graduate Catalog Page 31


Plagiarism involves the appropriation of another person's ideas, interpretation, words (even a few), data, statements, illustration or creative work and their presentation as one's own. An offense against plagiarism constitutes a serious academic misconduct.  Although offenses against academic integrity can manifest themselves in various ways, the most common forms of offenses are plagiarism and cheating. Plagiarism goes beyond the copying of an entire article. It may include, but is not limited to: copying a section of an article or a chapter from a book, reproduction of an art work, illustration, cartoon, photograph and the like and passing them off as one's own. Copying from the Internet is no less serious an offense than copying from a book or printed article, even when the material is not copyrighted.

Plagiarism also includes borrowing ideas and phrases from, or paraphrasing, someone else's work, published or unpublished, without acknowledging and documenting the source. Acknowledging and documenting the source of an idea or phrase, at the point where it is utilized, is necessary even when the idea or phrase is taken from a speech or conversation with another person.

Park University 2009-2010 Graduate Catalog Page 31-32

Attendance Policy:

Professors are required to maintain attendance records and report absences. Excused absences can be granted by the instructor, for medical reasons, school sponsored activities, and employment-related demands, including temporary duty. Students are responsible for any missed work. Absences for two successive weeks, without approved excuse, will be reported to the Director of the individual graduate program, or to the Executive Director for the Graduate School, for appropriate action. Students with such a record of absences, without an approved excuse, may be administratively withdrawn from the class and notified that an "F" will be recorded, unless the student initiates official withdrawal from the class(es).Park University 2009-2010 Graduate Catalog Page 35
For an eight week course:
• Students may have no unexcused absences.
• One absence will drop the final course grade by one full letter grade.
• A second absence will drop the final course grade by two letter grades.
• It is considered standard professional courtesy for the student to notify the instructor by phone or email ahead of time of any and all absences or late arrival/early departures (excepting emergencies).  
• The following will be unconditionally excused:  medical or dental emergency, student's hospitalization, serious illness of close family member, natural disasters (e.g., fires, flood, etc.), jury duty, unexpected military call-up, death in family.

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Additional Information:

Bear, Donald R., Invernizzi, Marcia, Templeton, Shane, Johnston, Francine. (2004). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, 3e. Upper Saddle NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-13-111338-0

Clay, Marie M. (1993). Reading Recovery: A Guidebook for Teachers in Training. Portsmouth,  NH: Heinemann. iSBN: 0-435-08764-9

Clay, Marie M. (2005). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, 2e. Portsmouth, NH:   Heinemann. ISBN: 0-325-00929-5

Copeland, Matt. (2005). Socratic Circles: Fostering Critical and Creative Thinking in Middle and High School. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110394-5

Fountas, Irene C., Pinnell, Gay Su. (2006) Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency: Thinking,  Talking, and Writing About Reading, K-8. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-325-00308-4

Gallagher, Kelly. (2003) Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini-Lessons for Middle and High School. Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-356-2

Goodman, Yetta M., Marek, Ann M. (1996). Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Revaluing Readers and Reading. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 1-878450-85-9

Harvey, Stephanie, Goudvis, Anne. (2007). Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement, 2e. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 978-   1-57110-481-6

Johnston, Peter H. (2004) Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Children’s Learning. Portland, ME:  Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-3899

Keene, Ellin Oliver. Zimmerman, Susan. (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader’s Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. ISBN: 0-435-07237-4

LeDoux, Joseph. (2002). The Synaptic Self. New York, NY: Viking. ISBN: 0-670-03028-7

Lyons, Carol A. (2003) Teaching Struggling Readers: How to Use Brain-Based Research to  Maximize Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Publishers. ISBN: 0-325-00435-8

Manzo, Anthony V., Manzo, Ula C. (1993). Literacy Disorders: Holistic Diagnosis and Remediation. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. ISBN:0-03-072633-6

Manzo, Anthony, Manzo, Ula, and Thomas, Matthew. (2005) Content Area Literacy: StrategicTeaching for Strategic Learning. Wiley Jossey-Bass Education. ISBN: 047115167X

McGuinness, Diane. (1999). Why Our Children Can't Read and What We Can Do About It: A Scientific Revolution in Reading. New York: Touchstone ISBN 0684853566

Mueller, Pamela N. (2001). Lifers: Learning from At-Risk Adolescent Readers. Boston, MA: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0-13-191360-3

Sousa, David A. (2001). How the Brain Learns, 2e. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. ISBN: 076197765-1

Spafford, Carol A., Grosser, George S. (2005). Dyslexia and Reading Difficulties: Research and Resource Guide for Working with All Struggling Readers, 2e. Boston: Pearson Allyn-      Bacon. ISBN: 0-205-42856-8

Tovani, Chris. (2004) Do I Really Have to Teach Reading? Stenhouse Publishers. ISBN: 1-57110-376-7

Walker, Barbara J. (2004). Techniques for Reading Assessment and Instruction. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN: 0-13-171360-

Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. ISBN: 0-87120-313-8


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Last Updated:3/8/2010 7:35:44 PM