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Education Major Version

ED 608 Assessment
Singer, Marietta N.


Mission Statement: The mission of the School of Graduate and Professional Studies at Park University is to provide leadership and directions to Park University's graduate and professional programs to assure that they are specialized, scholarly, innovative, and designed to educate students to be creative, independent, and lifelong learners within the context of a global community.

School For Education Mission Statement
The School for Education at Park University, an institution committed to diversity and best practice, prepares educators to be effective school professionals, reflective change agents, and advocates for equity and excellence for all learners.



Vision Statement: Park University's School of Graduate and Professional Studies will be an international leader in providing innovative graduate and professional educational opportunities to learners within a global society.

School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


Course

ED 608 Assessment

Semester

F2P 2010 ED

Faculty

Singer, Marietta N.

Degrees/Certificates

Ph.D. Administration, Curriculum and Instruction, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
M.Ed. Administration, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
B.S. Elementary Education - Missouri Western

Office Location

Room 19, Herr House, Parkville Campus

Office Hours

10:00-1:00 Monday-Thursday

Daytime Phone

816-584-6723

E-Mail

msinger@park.edu

mnsinger@kc.rr.com

Semester Dates

October 18, 2010 - December 6, 2010

Class Days

-M-----

Class Time

5:00 - 9:30 PM

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:
 

ISBN:0137002335 ISBN-13:9780137002337 Classroom Assessment : What Teachers Need to Know/ Edition 6
by W. Popham,   PUB. DATE: 2010PUBLISHER:Prentice Hall          Book Price: $84.15

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:

ED608 is designed to increase PK-12 classroom teachers’ or administrator’s understanding and skill in interpreting standardized assessments and formal and informal classroom assessments, and in developing appropriated assessments for classroom use. The course will emphasize the connection between assessment, curriculum and instruction, and the importance of data based instructional decision-making. Students will create a variety of assessments for classroom use.
 
  Assessment Class Practicum Experience: (Observations for MAT students only)A minimum of 3 hours of practicum experience in the field is required for MAT students. Your will need to set up an observation in a high school or middle school of your choice. During your observation, try to get as much of a feel for what the teacher is doing for assessment as you can. We realize you can't get a ton of stuff in 3 hours. But think about the informal assessment pieces too, i.e., home work, share with a partner, questions asked, and how they assess student understanding during the lesson. And if you don't see a lot of informal assessment going on, try to think of ways you might assess informally as you teach.

Also watch for teacher decision making based on informal assessment methods. Does he/she try to clarify if there seems to be some confusion? If not, did he/she need to do that? Think about what you would do if it were your classroom.

When you finish your observation, write a one page summary of what you observed about formal and informal assessment in the classroom, and the use of assessment in decisions making. 

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will practice the use formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social and physical development of the learner
  2. Analyze educational assessment from various perspectives including the classroom teacher, students and parents.
  3. Practice using a variety of assessment tools utilizing formal and informal assessment measures
  4. Evaluate the quality of various assessment tools utilizing nationally recognized standards including but not limited to validity, reliability, and absence of bias. Practice professional and ethical standards.
  5. Acquire the skills necessary to construct and/or modify a variety of classroom assessments
  6. Describe and utilize the foundational statistical concepts of central tendency and dispersion.
  7. Explain the implementation, interpretation and utilization of norm referenced, group achievement and aptitude tests including the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)
  8. Communicate assessment results to students, parents, and peers
  9. Utilize assessment results to inform classroom instruction for a diverse student population
  10. Explain the professional (legal and ethical) responsibilities in relationship to educational assessment
  11. Practice theories and applications of technology in educational settings and have adequate technological skills to create meaningful learning opportunities for all students.


  Instructor Learning Outcomes
  1. 12.  Demonstrate the ability to evaluate student work using rubrics or scoring guides
  2. 13.  Develop appropriate scoring guides and rubrics related to classroom assessments
  3. 14.  Develop a variety of assessments (multiple choice, constructed response and performance events) related to district curriculum
  4. 15.  Develop skills in collaborating with peers to improve assessment practices
Core Assessment:

This course is designed to address issues relating to formal and informal assessment, teacher-made tests, authentic assessment as well as standardized tests. The core assessment for this course will determine the student’s proficiency in developing appropriate assessment instruments for classroom use, and in interpreting information from standardized tests to other professionals and parents. Reflections of each of these activities and a Power Point presentation describing at least one assessment technique and how it can be used to benefit students should be written clearly and concisely with logical progression of ideas and supporting information and no errors in writing mechanics.


Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:
 


Points

Performance Criteria

Pacing Guide

Purpose

Due Class Date

20

Attendance and participation in group activities and informal presentations Attendance at all sessions is important. Reminder of Park Policy: If you miss more than one session you may not be able to pass the class Content mastery Collaboration Weekly

10

Study group review of the textbook: Read text prepare brief discussion points to be shared with class each session

Sessions 2-8 Study groups review key elements of each chapter, use study guide, and discuss content in class

Content, philosophy, application

Weekly

10

Data analysis and assessment implications – 1 page written analysis of data and a description of what could be done to improve student achievement based on the data.  Group or individual project

Analyze assessment data in class weeks one and two. Work on analysis in small group. 

·         Analysis is due session 4

·         Share analysis with session 4

Application, collaboration

Session 4

Nov. 10

20

School Improvement Plan ·         Based on the Data Analysis, develop a school improvement plan.  ·         The plan should include at least 3 goals, with action steps, including staff development, and creative use of resources to improve student achievement.

·         Be prepared to share your school improvement plan with the class

·         Group or Individual project

After analyzing a variety of data weeks 1-3 develop a SIP based on the strengths and weaknesses identified in the data analysis. You will have some class time to work on this.

·         Identify probable causes of poor student achievement and possible actions steps to address the issues identified

·         Work on the SIP weeks 3 & 4. Due & share week 5.

Content, philosophical base, practical application

Session 5

Nov. 17

15

Written Critique of a teacher developed assessment ·         Select a teacher or district developed assessment you use and bring it to class to use during the third session.  ·         Select an assessment you would like to totally revise as your final project.   ·         Group or individual project

·         Analyze assessment during fourth week of class and write the critique -due the 6th week. 

·         It may be a group project. Bring to class or Email.

·         Will discuss in class – not a formal presentation.

Practical application

Session 6

Nov. 24

25

Reflection paper on assessment(2 pages)Content: ·         Discuss the impact of No Child Left Behind and similar legislation on assessment and the implications for teachers, departments and schools.  ·         Compare and contrast classroom assessment with standardized assessment (strengths/weaknesses of each) ·         Describe how what you have learned from the class and from your assessment project will impact your teaching

·         Address the appropriate standards related to assessment if you are an MAT or Ed. Leadership student required to do a portfolio

·         Group project or individual project

·         Discuss and develop ideas about assessment in class, and in small groups during first 6 sessions. 

·         Make note of important ideas you gain from the text and from your classmates

·         Use the what you learned during data analysis, too

·         Prepare written reflection and share the seventh week. Group or individual project. 

·         You will have some time to work on this during class

Collaboration, philosophical base, application, leadership

Session 7

Dec. 1

100

Balanced Assessment ·         See description ·         Group or individual project

Begin working on it during second or third week, and complete by 8th week. You will have time to work on this during class.
You (or your group) will present your project during the final class session. Bring to class

Practical application

Session 8

Dec. 8

Total points possible = 200 180-200 points or 90-100% = “A” 160-179 points or 80-89%   = “B”

140-169 points or 70-79%   = “C”

   

Grading:

180-200 points or 90-100% = “A”
 
160-179 points or 80-89%   = “B”
 
140-169 points or 70-79%   = “C”
 
120-139 points or 60-69%   = “D”
 
0-119 points or 50-59%   = “F”

Late Submission of Course Materials:
 

Graduate students are expected to complete their assignments and turn them in according to the class expectations as shown in the syllabus.  Late work will be accepted, but at a reduced point value.  If and emergency occurs, please contact you professor and make arrangements to complete the work as soon as possible.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
 

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
Graduate students are expected to treat others with respect.  Cooperation and collaboration are keys to a successful learning environment.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
 

Session 1

·         Review Course Outcomes and student expectations

·         Assessing prior knowledge

·         The purpose of assessment – Why do we assess?

·         Standards, standard terminology and standardized tests

·         No Child Left Behind legislation

·         Review Doctrine of “No Surprises” Assessment, Curriculum and Instruction connection

·         Test ethics

·         Grade Level Expectations

·         Analyzing general data from state assessments

·         Understanding assessment of learning – How do we know they really “got it” (Mastery).

·         Activity: Developing a rubric/scoring guide - Chocolate chip cookies 

 

Assignment: 

1.      Identify a copy of a multiple item assessment that you, or a peer would give students. Select an assessment that you would like to rewrite as your final project. We will analyze it and rewrite and revise some of the items in class during class sessions. This will give you a head start on your final balanced assessment project.

2.      Week1- Read chapters 1, 2 & 3 in Classroom Assessment

3.      Begin organizing ideas for your data analysis and implications paper. It is due session 4.

4.      As you work on the data analysis and implications paper, think about what you could do at the school or district level to improve student achievement. Use these ideas for your Assessment Improvement Plan. The AIP will be due session 5.

5.      Begin organizing your ideas about assessment for your reflection on assessment paper. As you read your assignments and do research, start keeping notes on the pro and con aspects of NCLB and strengths and weaknesses of standardized and classroom assessments. Think about how you would improve assessment in your classroom, school or district. It should also include how it relates to the appropriate standards – MoStep, ISLLC, or NBST.  It is due session seven.

 

Session 2: 

·         Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion

·         Share 2nd scoring guide: Chocolate Chip Cookies

·         Continue data analysis work during session one

·         Rationale for using balanced assessments

·         Essential Assessment Concepts – Fairness, reliability and validity

·         Types of assessment items

·         Selected Response

·         Open and closed response items

·         Characteristics and components of a constructed response items

·         Evaluating student responses to constructed response items.

·         Creating constructed response items

·         Quick and easy ways to write scoring guides for constructed response items

·         Scoring guide for Effective Teachers

 

Assignment: 

1.      Work on your data analysis and implications for the classroom paper. It is due the 4th session.

2.      As you work on the data analysis and implications paper, think about what you could do at the school or district level to improve student achievement. Use these ideas for your Assessment Improvement Plan. The AIP will be due session 5.

3.      Write at least two “constructed response” items, with scoring guides that could be used in your classroom. Bring them to class. We will use them in an activity. At the end of the activity you will have two questions and scoring guides to use for your balanced assessment project.

4.      Read Chapters 4 & 5 Classroom Assessment

5.      Continue organizing your ideas about assessment for your reflection on assessment paper. As you read the assignments and do research, keep notes on the pro and con aspects of NCLB, and strengths and weaknesses of standardized and classroom assessments. If you have district level assessments you may include them in your paper. Think about what you are learning and the implications for you. Include ideas on how you could improve assessment practices in your classroom, school or district. It should also include how it relates to the appropriate standards – MoStep, ISLLC, or NBST. This paper will be turned in for a grade. It is worth 25 points.  It is due the 7th session.

6.      Make sure you bring the copy of the assessment you picked out to analyze and re-write to session three.

 

Session 3:

·         Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion

·         Share scoring guide for “Effective Teacher” for the class

·         Sharing of reflections on journal articles

·         Connecting assessment to instruction

·         Purpose and types of scoring guides

·         Evaluating scoring guides

·         Develop a scoring guide for an “Effective Principal”

·         Review and revise your scoring guides and/or constructed response items

 

Assignment:  

1.      Complete your data analysis and implications for the classroom. It is due the 4th session

2.      As you work on the data analysis and implications paper, think about what you could do at the school or district level to improve student achievement. Use these ideas for your Assessment Improvement Plan. The AIP will be due session 5.

3.      Work on your reflection on assessment paper. It will be due session 7.

4.      Bring a teacher developed assessment to analyze in class during session 4. If you can, bring the assessment you want to re-do as your final project. The analysis of the test will help you form your plans for your final assessment project.

5.       Look at your assessment, and decide on an objective, “big idea” or “understanding” you want to use as the basis for your performance event. Think about the real life context you might want to use. Bring your ideas with you.

6.      Read Chapter  6 & 7  in Classroom Assessment

 

Session 4

  • Authentic/Performance assessment – Performance tasks and event, characteristics and components
  • Discussions of Analysis of Data, Assessment Improvement Planning
  • Sharing of reflections on journal articles
  • Sharing of data analysis
  • Develop a scoring guide for an “Effective Leader” (principal, mayor, governor, President)
  • Group/individual work on Analysis of the Data

 

Assignments:

1.      Complete your Assessment Improvement Plan, due session 5. 

2.      Work on your reflection on assessment paper on standardized/classroom assessment. It is due session 7. It will be shared and turned in for a grade. It is an important part of your grade for the class

3.      Use the analysis of the assessment you brought to class to write a critique of the assessment. Your analysis will help you plan how to improve your assessment during weeks five -seven. The critique of your assessment is due session 6.

4.      Read chapters 8 & 9 in Classroom Assessment

 

Session 5:

·         Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion

·         Sharing of Effective Leader rubric

·         Analysis of tests/assessments brought to class

·         Sharing of AIP plans

·         Reflections on data analysis and implications for the classroom

·         Group work on the critique of the assessment paper

·         Determine work teams (if you want to do a group project) and plan your balanced assessment project

·         Review and evaluate sample performance events

·         Begin work on a performance event or task and scoring guide, based on a Standard or objective

·         Scoring Guide 4: Effectiveness of the War on Terrorism

·         Group or individual work on the reflections on assessment  paper

 

Assignment: 

1.      Use the analysis of the assessment you brought to class to write a critique of the assessment. Your analysis will help you plan how to improve your assessment during weeks five and six. The critique of your assessment is due session six.

2.      Work on your reflection on assessment paper on standardized/classroom assessment. It is due the seventh session. Ideas from it will be shared with the class. It is an important part of your grade for the class.

3.      Read chapters 10 & 11 in Classroom Assessment

4.      Think about and plan for your balanced assessment project. Determine what resources you will need to bring with you as you work on it, and gather those resources for next week. It is due session 8.

Session 6: 

  • Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion
  • Share: War on Terrorism scoring guide
  • Portfolio assessment
  • Sharing of Critiques on Assessment
  • Discussion of critical elements of assessment learned in class
  • Group work on Reflection on Assessment papers
  • Review performance events and revise scoring guide and/or performance event as necessary.
  • Individual/group work on balanced assessment projects
  • Scoring Guide for Effective Families

Assignment: 

1.      Work on your reflection on assessment paper on standardized/classroom assessmentIt is due the seventh session. It will be shared with a small group and turned in for a grade. Some papers will be shared with the whole class. It is an important part of your grade for the class

2.      Work on your multiple item balanced assessment project, containing multiple choice items, constructed response items (open and closed), and a performance event for a unit based on your district curriculum. This should be an assessment you can use in your own classroom. It is due session 8

3.      Read Chapters 12 & 13 in Classroom Assessment

 

Session 7:

  • Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion
  • Sharing scoring guides for Effective Families
  • Sharing of reflection on assessment papers
  • Group/individual work on balanced assessment projects

 

Assignment:

1.      Complete your multiple item balanced assessment project, containing multiple choice items, constructed response items (open and closed), and a performance event for a unit based on your district curriculum. This should be an assessment you can use in your own classroom. You should bring enough copies to share with the class (8 copies)

2.      Read Chapters 14  & 15 in Classroom Assessment

3.      Breathe a sigh of relief.

Session 8:

  • Critical Reflections from the texts- small and whole group discussion
  • Presentations of balanced assessment projects
  • Peer review and feedback on balanced assessments
  • Review of major concepts studied in the class
  • Activity: Connecting knowledge of assessments to classroom instruction
  • Class evaluation

 

 

 

Academic Honesty:
As a learning community, the University upholds the highest standards of academic integrity in all its academic activities, by faculty, staff, administrators and students. Academic integrity involves much more than respecting intellectual property rights. It lies at the heart of learning, creativity, and the core values of the University. Those who learn, teach, write, publish, present, or exhibit creative works are advised to familiarize themselves with the requirements of academic integrity and make every effort to avoid possible offenses against it, knowingly or unknowingly. Park University 2010-2011 Graduate Catalog Page 20

Plagiarism:

Plagiarism involves the appropriation of another person's ideas, interpretation, words (even a few), data, statements, illustration or creative work and their presentation as one's own. An offense against plagiarism constitutes a serious academic misconduct.  Although offenses against academic integrity can manifest themselves in various ways, the most common forms of offenses are plagiarism and cheating. Plagiarism goes beyond the copying of an entire article. It may include, but is not limited to: copying a section of an article or a chapter from a book, reproduction of an art work, illustration, cartoon, photograph and the like and passing them off as one's own. Copying from the Internet is no less serious an offense than copying from a book or printed article, even when the material is not copyrighted.

Plagiarism also includes borrowing ideas and phrases from, or paraphrasing, someone else's work, published or unpublished, without acknowledging and documenting the source. Acknowledging and documenting the source of an idea or phrase, at the point where it is utilized, is necessary even when the idea or phrase is taken from a speech or conversation with another person.

Park University 2010-2011 Graduate Catalog Page 20


Attendance Policy:

Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and report absences. Excused absences can be granted by the instructor, for medical reasons, school sponsored activities, and employment-related demands, including temporary duty. Students are responsible for any missed work. Absences for two successive weeks, without approved excuse, will be reported to the Director of the individual graduate program, or to the Executive Director for the Graduate School, for appropriate action. Students with such a record of absences, without an approved excuse, may be administratively withdrawn from the class and notified that an "F" will be recorded, unless the student initiates official withdrawal from the class(es).Park University 2010-2011 Graduate Catalog Page 24

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Content - Acquire the skills necessary to construct and/or modify a variety of classroom assessments                                                                                                                                                       
Outcomes
1,3,5,9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

3. Exceeds expectations – clearly indicates proficiency in the graduate student's ability to develop a variety of test questions by a cumulative score of 90% or better on all teacher made tests
 
Meets expectations – indicates near proficiency in the graduate student's ability to develop a variety of test questions by a cumulative score of 80% to 89% on all teacher made tests Does not meet expectations – indicates below proficiency in the graduate student's ability to develop a variety of test questions by a cumulative score of 70% to 79% on all teacher made tests. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations – Cumulative score of less than 70% on all teacher made tests or No evidence submitted 
Analysis(1) - Categorize, in the form of a rubric, the components for the answer to the extended response test item that distinguishes factors for grading the answer                                                                                      
Outcomes
1,2,5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Exceeds expectations – More than four separate factors presented Meets expectations – Three or four separate factors presented Does not meet expectations – Less than three separate factors presented Shows no evidence of meeting expectations – No evidence submitted 
Analysis(2) - Analyze, from a case study, the battery of educational assessment and communicate the assessment results to student, parents and other professionals                                                                                         
Outcomes
2,6,8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Exceeds expectations – Teacher is able to explain statistical concepts of standardized tests with 100% accuracy Meets expectations – Teacher is able to explain statistical concepts of standardized tests with 90-99% accuracy Does not meet expectations – Teacher explains statistical concepts of standardized tests with less than 89% accuracy. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations – No evidence submitted 
Application(1) - Construction of Select-Response Tests (4 binary choice, 1 unusual binary choice, 2 multiple choice and 1 matching test)                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1,3,5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Exceeds expectations – No test writing violations Meets expectations – Less than three test writing violations Does not meet expectations – More than four test writing violations. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations – No evidence submitted 
Application(2) - Construction of Constructed-Response Tests (2 short-answer, 1 restricted response essay item, 1 extended-response item) without any test writing                                                                                          
Outcomes
1,3,5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Exceeds expectations – No test writing violations Meets expectations – Less than three test writing violations Does not meet expectations – More than four test writing violations. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations – No evidence submitted 
Application(3) - Construction of a Likert Scale to evaluate classroom instruction for a diverse student population.                                                                                                                                        
Outcomes
9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Exceeds expectations – No scale writing violations Meets expectations – less than three scale writing violations Does not meet expectations – More than four scale writing violations Shows no evidence of meeting expectations.  No evidence submitted 
Technical/Professional Skills - Using a Power Point presentation, the teacher will describe at least 1 assessment technique and provide examples of how it will be used to benefit students.                                                               
Outcomes
Technology skills 11                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Exceeds expectations- Fonts are easy to read, layout is aesthetically pleasing, Introduction draws audience in with compelling questions, content is clear with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information- elaboration and explanation Meets expectations- Sometimes fonts are easy to read but long paragraphs, color or busy background detracts from readability, Introduction is clear and coherent and relates to the topic, and Content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information.  Fails to elaborate. Does not meet expectations- Readability is difficult too many different fonts, appears cluttered, Introduction shows some structure but does not create a strong sense of what is to follow, Content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose- cannot answer questions about subject. 0. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations

 
Professional writing skills - Reflections clearly explain professional responsibilities in relationship to educational assessment                                                                                                                          
Outcomes
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
. Exceeds expectations- demonstrates full knowledge with explanations and elaboration of professional responsibilities in regard to Procedural Safeguards in assessment for IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), practice of absence of bias in development of test items, standardized procedures in administration of standardized tests, confidentiality of information.
Content is written clearly and concisely with logical progression of ideas and supporting information, text is written with no errors in writing mechanics.
 
. Meets expectations- demonstrates full knowledge of professional responsibilities in regard to Procedural Safeguards in assessment for IDEA, practice of absence of bias in development of test items, standardized procedures in administration of standardized tests, confidentiality of information.  Content is written with logical progression of ideas, text is written with little editing required for writing mechanics. Does not meet expectations- Demonstrates limited knowledge of professional responsibilities in regard to Procedural Safeguards in assessment for IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), practice of absence of bias in development of test items, standardized procedures in administration of standardized tests, confidentiality of information. Content is vague in conveying information. Spelling, punctuation and grammar errors distract or impair readability. Shows no evidence of meeting expectations. 

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Last Updated:10/15/2010 11:42:39 AM