CJ311 Criminal Investigation

for U1T 2010

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Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.


CJ 311 Criminal Investigation


U1T 2010 DLA


Black, Peter T.


Adjunct Faculty


BA Criminal Justice Administration
MA Management and Supervision Concentration in Public Administration

Office Location


Office Hours

Monday-Thursday 7-10 PM (EST)   Friday 5-7 PM (EST)   Saturday and Sunday 8-11 AM (EST)

Other Phone





Semester Dates

June 7-August 1, 2010

Class Days


Class Time



Pre-requisites: CJ 100 and CJ 105.

Credit Hours


Criminal Investigation, Eighth ed., 2007, by Bennett and Hess http://direct.mbsbooks.com/park.htm

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email helpdesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the http://parkonline.org website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.


Course Description:

This intermediate course includes a discussion of the nature and purpose of criminal investigation, historical background, tools employed, skills development, and techniques useful in the reconstruction of criminal activity.

Educational Philosophy:
The facilitator's educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings. The facilitator will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues and contradictions.  Further, critical thinking and writing are seemingly lost arts. One must be able to write cogently to be successful in the criminal justice field.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Differentiate types of investigative techniques used in courts.
  2. Examine specific methods for investigation of major crimes.

  Instructor Learning Outcomes
  1. The student will apply the processes for writing notes and reports, as well as compose good field notes and incident reports.
  2. The student will synthesize what he/she has assimilated in this and prior courses to conduct follow-up investigations.
Core Assessment:

For CJ311, all students will complete an essay, not less than 4 pages (1,000 words) in length (excluding the cover sheet, title, and bibliography pages) as follows:

            It can be argued that the foundation for community support for law enforcement is in the trust built by faith that the police follow the law and adhere to the U.S. Constitution. For example, criminal investigative questioning must be guided by Fourth Amendment search and seizure protections. Harsh or questionable investigative methods may be unethical and illegal. 

            Discuss whether the concern for homeland security has redefined acceptable or ethical criminal investigative tactics used by law enforcement. Explain what impact changes in criminal investigative techniques and methods may have on police-community relations, criminal prosecutions, and the ability of police to investigate major crimes.

            The essay should be typed, double-spaced, be written in APA format, including in-text source citations, and use a minimum of 4 course-external sources.

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:
Class assessment is based on participation in our discussions, weekly papers, and a proctored final examination. Additionally, Park University requires and I heartily support a core assessment paper. This core assessment requires the use of critical analysis to produce a paper that draws on everything learned in the course. Additional information on the core assessment may be found elsewhere in this syllabus.


1. Each week's discussion is worth 50 points for a total of 400 points. 2. Each weekly paper is worth 25 points for a total of 200 points. 3. The proctored final is worth 200 points. 4. The Core Assessment is worth 200 points. The grand total of points is 1000 points.

Late Submission of Course Materials:
I expect work to be submitted on time. I subtract 10% for each day that material is late. I do not accept any material that is five days late. I do not accept any late work the last week of the course.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:
I expect vigorous and substantive debates. I also expect us to respect one another. I expect civil behavior from each student.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

Week #1 June 7-13:  The Requirements for Criminal Investigation Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. During this week we will look at criminal investigations as a whole, the crime scene, and the writing of effective reports.

Week #2 June 14-20: During Week 2, we'll examine the legality and mechanics of searches, including searches of property and persons. We will conclude this week with a study of physical evidence. This will include the basic types, their nature, importance to an investigation and methods of safeguarding. One item we will discuss will be a report of the official investigation of improper handling of evidence by the FBI laboratory. Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Week 2 Paper After having examined the main points of the Dept. of Justice Inspector General's report of the allegations of improper evidence handling at the FBI lab, provide your own opinion. Do you agree with the IG, or do you feel differently? Provide reasons supporting your opinion. During this week we will look at searches, forensics, and physical evidence.
Week #3 June 21-27:  Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Offer your opinion regarding the gradual dilution of the court mandates of the 1960's such as Miranda. Each year the courts seem to find more circumstances and cases in which these rules are set aside. Is this a good or bad trend for investigators?  Begin to work on your Core Assessment. During this week we will look at the process of obtaining information and the identification and arrest of suspects.
Week #4 June 28-July 4:  Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Read the Application scenario A on page 231 of your text and provide answers to the two questions. In addition, provide a list of what physical evidence you would search for in this incident. During this week we will look at death investigations, various types of assaults, and sex offenses.
Week #5 July 5-11:  Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Examine the unique aspects of Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy and discuss them. Provide information of how you would investigate this type crime. During this week we will look at crimes against juveniles, robbery, and burglary.
Week #6 July 12-18: Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Using the concept of White Collar Crime as found in the text, what do you consider the most dangerous form and why? Provide supportive reasoning for your choice. During this week we will look at white collar crimes, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson/bombs/explosives.
Week #7 July 19-25:  Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. What do you see as the future of computer crime? What types do you believe will increase or decrease? Provide supportive reasons for your statements. This week we will look at computers and cybercrime, drug-related crimes, organized crime, and the activities of gangs.
Week #8 July 26-August 1: Post your comments on this thread to this week's discussion questions. Work through Application B, the LET Challenge, starting on page 510 (page 517 in the 6th edition), providing answers to the questions posed. E-mail your instructor your answers along with explanations of why you chose as you did. Take the proctored final examination. Submit your final paper via Pirate email to your instructor. The Core Assessment is due at 1800 EST, Dec 11. This week we will look at terrorism/homeland security and preparation for court.
Please read this carefully. This is a course that was created by Park. There is a final review and a final exam that are loaded into the course. Those are NOT yours. I created your final exam and will provide it to Park. Park, in turn will provide that to your proctors.

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: An attendance report of "P" (present) will be recorded for students who have logged in to the Online classroom at least once during each week of the term. Recording of attendance is not equivalent to participation. Participation grades will be assigned by each instructor according to the criteria in the Grading Policy section of the syllabus.

Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

Additional Information:

Print it off and put it by your computer. In the event of any conflicts, what I post in my office takes precedence over any other document, to include the syllabus.

Please feel free to use my office for general questions about the operation of the course. Matters of personal interest should be sent to me directly using the email function within the course. Please understand that I do not like extensions, so do your work early in the week in case there are problems. In my world suspense dates are bright lines and not mere suggestions. I will, on occasion, make changes to the course and the syllabus to fine tune things. These changes will be posted in my office and I expect everyone to check the office at least once a week. I expect everyone to read everything that is posted in my office and all announcements and emails and I hold my students accountable for that information.

The papers must be in APA format.

For those of you who do not know, this is a master course. That means it was created by one instructor and used by all.

There is a test and test instructions that are loaded into the course. That is NOT my test and hence not your final. Your final will be sent to your proctors. Be sure to read the instructions before arriving for the test. Be sure that your proctor has the test. I do not send the test. It is sent out by Park around the sixth week. If your proctor does not get the final, please contact Park.

On the subject of proctors, let’s get that done no later than the fourth week. I won’t chase down a proctor for you in the eighth week.

I also do not provide extra credit. That should have stopped in the sixth grade. That strikes me as rewarding people for not doing their work in a timely fashion. If you truly want to be a criminal investigator, your work must be done in a timely fashion. There are no excuses in my world for being late. I look at late work as the same thing as missing movement. Late work in my world may well lead to a case being dismissed and a criminal investigator being found in contempt of court. The school week is 168 hours in length and does not start at 10 PM on Sunday night.

I want to remind everyone that there is a core assessment in this course. On the last Sunday my grade book is closed to the submission of any assignments at 2100. Please start that core assessment today. On Sundays, I start doing grades at 2100. My grade book is closed at that time for the week. All times are EST.

I want everyone should check into the course at least once before Friday, each week.

The last Friday of the course I always have one student scrounging for a proctor. I cannot do anything for you then. Get your proctors squared away ASAP. Don't wait and don't schedule your finals for the last Friday of the course. Something always happens.

There are a number of discussion questions and yes, to get an A, B, or C, you must participate in all of them. To get an A or a B on the discussion questions you must post to all of them and respond to two fellow students on two other days during the week. Look for a drop down box at discussions. They are not just place holders. You are expected to answer all of them. The first couple come directly from the text. Follow those instructions precisely. The next few are from me. I expect you to be in class a minimum of three days a week and to respond to at least two classmates. That should take about three hours per week.

It is critically important to read everything that I post or send. Some of you will be a bit surprised by your discussion grades if you do not follow my instructions. Let me reiterate that there are multiple discussions each week, and not just one. They are located in a drop down menu at discussions and to get an A or a B for the week, you must actively participate in all of our discussions.

Be sure to check the office thread weekly in case there is new information.

The core assessments are NOT the same thing as your final exam. Those are two different things. The core assessment is a paper. The core assessment is mandated by Park in all CJ courses. It is spelled out in the syllabus. It is to be posted in the drop box.

I want to spend a few moments to discuss the last week of the course. Please forgive me for boring the majority of you, however the last Friday of the course, I spend an inordinate amount of time trying to save 1-2 students. I will not be doing that this term or in future terms. You are adults and adult learners. I believe that everyone here wants to be in law enforcement and in my field one is on time or one gets buried in the property room. A few of you will wait until the last minute to secure a proctor. I won't try to chase one down for anyone the last week. Nuff said.

Do NOT schedule your final for the last Friday. Something always goes wrong.

The essays should be typed, double-spaced, be written in APA format, including in-text source citations, and use a minimum of 4 course-external sources.

I want everyone to put their homework in the drop box

Here is a clue to my grading. Do your work and do your work on-time and I am a very reasonable grader. I do not like late work. I don't accept late work from my agents.

Folks, my office is the place to post questions about the operation of the course. Please do not email those questions to me. Otherwise, I end up answering the same questions 25 times and that takes away from the time that I have available to spend in the classroom. Do email me about personal problems and concerns.

You should start saving websites that I post in the course. They will be helpful to you in these and in future courses. There are only one or two like that. I expect you to add related websites that you have used and found useful. I expect APA style. You can leave off the cover sheet. Include everything else. That is a Park requirement. I look for active and substantive participation.


You might be asking, "What does he mean by substantive?" This is certainly a fair question. A quick, but perhaps not very helpful answer from me might be, "Well, I'll know it when I see it." After all, one of the things that I do for a living, both as a criminal justice manager and as an instructor, is to read a variety of products to see if they are substantive. One of the ways that I do this is to always remember the old media questions of who, what, where, when, why, and how.

I am fairly confident that every instructor and student has pondered the question of what is meant by substantive at one time or another. As a matter of fact, it is probably at the core of what I do when I grade essays. When I review and grade papers, I look at both style and substance.

The question of whether or not something is substantive is a very difficult question for you and for me. First of all, let me suggest that it is something that I grapple with every time that I read a post and/or grade a paper. Substantive to me indicates a number of things. First of all, it means that you have read the required readings and exhibit an understanding of them. It means that you are not just repeating what you have read, but have fully understood it. I look to see if your answer adds something to my understanding of the issue at hand.

Secondly, I would suggest that criminal justice managers must learn several critical skills in order to be successful. These skills are the ability to speak and write well, and to think critically. As an aside, I will tell you that every application to become a senior manager in federal law enforcement requires that one write a separate paper explaining/showing how one's career proves a mastery of these skills. Most of us communicate with others, whom we have never met, through the telephone, in writing, or in emails. Isn't it true that these individuals are drawing conclusions about our professional competence based on these communications? Now that may or may not be fair, but I suspect the answer to that question is a different course in the communications field.

Okay so where does that leave us? We have read and understand the material. We must then be able to explain the material to others and to express the pros and cons of what we have read and learned. Our explanation should add some value to a discussion. When I read a paper and I think, "Goodness, that's something that I hadn't considered", that's an "A" paper.

Presumably, most of you are in this program because you aspire to be a manager in the CJ arena. One of my primary duties, as a manager, on a daily basis is to review a variety of written products to see if they have substance. Do they answer the questions of who, what, when, where, why, and how? Do they add value to my understanding of the material?

Additional Issues Concerning the Quality and Length of Responses

The quality and length of your responses are considered when I look at how they contribute to the class. If a response is too long or wordy, it may prove difficult to read and, therefore, it may not significantly contribute to our understanding of the subject. This may also be true when a response is too abbreviated. It may prove difficult for other readers to understand your meaning.

Effective responses should be at least 100 words in length. The quality of your responses in classroom discussions is a critical way for you to demonstrate that you fully comprehend the course materials. Please note that the comments “I agree” or “Yes, that’s an important point” are not substantive responses. Quality responses demonstrate your degree of understanding by expanding on the original statement.

Correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure are expected in your assignments. However, these rules do not apply to class and Learning Group discussions, as the style there is more informal and “conversational”. I would encourage you to edit each message and assignment, in order to make them more readable.

The discussion questions are where the real learning takes place in my course. They are not pick and choose. To get a C on the discussions you need to answer each discussion question once/ To get a B answer one classmate on each and every discussion question. To get an A you must substantively post three times during the week in each DQ. I would estimate that will take 2-3 hours. If you do all of your posting in one day, you will receive a C.

To have a discussion, there does not need to be a question. One can base a discussion on a statement. The DQs that are solely websites, you add your own. If you want an A on discussions, you will be in each one a minimum of three days a week and posting a substantive comment

For those of you who are unfamiliar with APA, now is the time to get familiar. Any large-scale PD is going to have a mandatory style guide that you have to follow. APA just happens to be the one required by Park and most universities. I recommend visiting the website Owl at Purdue before the course starts.

Throughout my courses, I will be giving you ideas and websites to help in securing a position in the CJ system. Okay, here is one of my early tips. Never, ever, never drop a course. I am always amazed when I see all of the add drops. If you have no experience or limited experience, I am going to look at your transcripts very carefully. I don't mind a couple of Ws. I don't like seeing 10 Ws. That tells me that you did not know what you were doing, that you lacked stick-toitiveness, or you are a quitter. I take that very seriously. So don't drop unless it is a matter of life or death!

This is a clue for hiring for everyone. If you apply to me with little or no experience, I am going to carefully scrutinize your transcript. One of the things that I am looking for are withdrawals. I don't mind a couple. I ditch your application if I see a lot. These courses are eight weeks long. Once you register for them stay in them no matter what. I don't want someone who does not have stick-to-it-tivesness working for me. I only hire about 3-5% of applicants. I am looking for a reason to put your application in the circular file. Don't give me that reason.

A couple of Ws are okay. I am talking reality here and what Commanders of police organizations look for in a transcript. Please, wait until you have deployed and are settled to start that course.


I want to remind everyone that there is a core assessment in this course. That is due at 1800 on the last Friday of the course. I take 10% off from then until 0800 on Saturday.I take another 10% off until 1800 on Saturday. I take another 10% off for submissions up to 0800 on Sunday and another 10% off until Sunday at 1800. I accept no core assignments after 1800 on the last Sunday for any reason. On the last Sunday my grade book is closed to the submission of any assignments at 2100. Start that core assessment today.

This is from Park:


Please remind students (via email or an eCollege Announcement) that the deadline for submitting proctor request forms is Friday of Week 6; don’t let them wait until the last minute.

If you have some students that haven’t filled the form out by the end of Week 4, send them an email reminder that failure to take the final is an automatic °F” for the course; hopefully this will get their attention.

If students fail to show up for their scheduled proctor date/time, they must submit a written appeal to their instructor, including all appropriate documentation in order to reschedule the exam. If the appeal is not approved, students will not take the final exam, which will result in an¡°F” for the course.

In order to make sure that students are aware of this new policy, please email them and ask them to acknowledge they understand the policy.

Students and instructors can access the proctor form by visiting http://proctor.park.edu.

I want everyone to acknowledge that the core assessment is due at 1800 EST on the last Friday of the course.

Good Morning,

As you know the Spring 1 2010 term begins on Monday, Jan. 11th. We in Online Operations and Dr. David York, Director of Online Operations, would like to tell you about a new feature in the eCollege course platform beginning with Spring 1 2010. We had requested that eCollege add an internal email function to the platform. They have just informed us that they will be able to do this immediately.

It has long been a concern that external email communication between students and faculty is not captured within the course shell. It is important for Park University to have all communication reside within the courses for grade appeals and student concerns. The new closed-course email tool has been implemented within the eCollege course platform to address this concern. Please use the course email function within the online course shell for all correspondence with students. Each communication exchange will remain within the course for archival purposes.

Added bonuses of this new tool are that student emails from specific courses will no longer fill up your Park University email account. In addition, you will always know exactly which course the student is referring to within the emails, because you will be in that specific class when corresponding via email.

¨ The Course Mail Tool is an internal messaging system that will allow you the ability to communicate within an eCollege Course. The tool looks and acts very much like a traditional email program, allowing you to create and send new messages, and respond to or forward an existing message within the course.

¨ Unlike regular email, however, the Mail Tool does not rely on the use of the user’s email address. All messages are contained within the course (Note: They are not delivered to an external email program).

¨ Messages deleted from the deleted items folder will not be accessible to any user from within the course interface. We would recommend against deleting emails though. That goes against the archival needs the tool seeks to address.

¨ To access this tool, click on the email tab found in the toolbar at the top of any page in a course, much as you always have. This will bring you to the course email inbox.

¨ Again, any message sent from within the course will not go to your Park University email account. It instead, shows within the course mailbox as a new message under the email tab and in the “what’s new” section. This will allow emails to be tracked and archived.

We will need your help in directing students to use the email system within their course and not emailing outside the course. If a student corresponds to your Park University email, please direct them to email you from within the course email tool. This will support the University with grade appeals or students concerns that need to be addressed. Providing all email documentation within the online classroom will minimize the work you have to perform to meet the appeals and concerns.

Please post an announcement within your course about this new tool. An announcement is also being sent to all online students for the Spring1 term. Thank you for all you do each term to make our students’ learning experience a successful one.

Park University

College for Distance Learning- Online


I just posted this in the course that I am finishing:

Folks, I am sorry to say but I am missing a few finals. If you do not see a grade for your final exam, I am required to award a grade of F. This is not my rule. It is Park's rule. I never can understand how this can happen. This rule has been in place for the seven years that I have taught for Park. Yet it seems like all that is old is new each term, despite the fact that I harp on this over and over. I wish I knew what to do. If this involves you please contact your proctor today, immediately and get the final to me.

One other quick comment. I know that for a few of you it is impossible to get to a Park proctor. For some of you it is just more convenient. I will tell you that 99% of the problems that I have are with non-Park proctors and if you use one, you are taking a risk. I have a non-Park proctor right now with whom I cannot communicate. He/she keeps sending me the entire original test without an answer sheet.


CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Appraises the sources into congruous and thoughtful conclusions - thoughtful implies some original thinking. Appraises the sources into congruous conclusions. Evaluation is weak. Evaluation is not present. 
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Combines researched material into a consistent whole; extends research well beyond minimum requirements. Combines researched material into a consistent whole. Researched material is presented but not into a consistent whole. No evidence of combining researched material into a consistent whole. 
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Analyzes key elements using 4 or more course-external sources. Analyzes key elements using at least 3 sources. Analyzes key elements using less than 3 sources. Analysis is not supported by any source material or no evidence of analysis is present. 
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
The essay shows multiple instances and exceptional understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows sufficient and satisfactory use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows minimal use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay fails to demonstrate an understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes. 
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Essay conveys complete and exceptional information on investigative techniques used in courts and specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys sufficient information on investigative techniques used in courts and specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys minimal information on investigative techniques used in courts and/or specific methods for investigating major crimes. Essay conveys no information on investigative techniques used in courts or specific methods for investigating major crimes. 
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
1 & 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Essay contains all required technical components: 4 pages in length (excluding required cover sheet, title page, and bibliography), typed, double-spaced.   Written in APA Style, including in-text source citations.  Contains fewer than five grammatical or spelling errors. Essay contains most required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors but errors do not detract from understanding. Written in APA Style, but may have a few formatting errors. Essay contains few required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors that detract from understanding. APA Style usage is barely evident. Essay contains no required technical components. There are so many errors in the APA writing convention, in the paper presentation, or in grammar and/or spelling that it is difficult to read. 


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Last Updated:5/2/2010 11:25:18 AM