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SO 208 Social Inequality
Talavera, Victor S.


Mission Statement: The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence, which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Vision Statement: Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

Course

SO 208 Social Inequality

Semester

F1B 2010 BL

Faculty

Talavera, Victor S.

E-Mail

victor.talavera@park.edu

1talavera@netscape.edu

Class Days

------S

Class Time

8:00 - 1:00 PM

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:

Title: Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences, 7/E
Author: Charles E. Hurst
Publisher: Allyn and Bacon / Prentice Hall

ISBN-10: 0205698298

ISBN-13: 9780205698295

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
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Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:
SO 208 Social Inequality: An analysis of patterns of social and economic inequality in American society as well as societies in other times and places. Examines theories of the causes of inequality for individuals and society, and the patterns and causes of social mobility. 3:0:3

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe and explain different patterns of social and economic inequality, and formal and informal systems of stratification and opportunity structures, within their historical and comparative national and international contexts – especially in light of both absolute and shifting standards of relative deprivation.
  2. Explore and compare theories of the causes of and the consequences of inequality for individuals and society.
  3. Recognize the roles of status, power, and access to resources within a society, and illustrate these ideas with real world examples.
  4. Classify and understand various strategies of resistance commonly employed by subordinate groups; and evaluate their relative success.
  5. Explain the major causes and consequences of prejudice, discrimination, and aggression as they enforce existing patterns of inequality.
  6. Identify the operation of persistent modern forms of inequality, such as class, race or ethnicity, and gender, as well as more recently recognized systems of stratification.
  7. Analyze how culture, socialization, and false consciousness reinforce and perpetuate inequalities.
  8. Understand the mechanisms of intergenerational and intragenerational mobility and status attainment.
  9. Distinguish how relative status interacts with political participation, economic opportunity, educational attainment, and mass culture to reinforce, rectify, or create new inequalities.


Core Assessment:

SO208: SOCIAL INEQUALITY


Core Assessment (New for July, 2006)


 


GENERAL NOTES


The Core Assessment assignment for this class will be a major essay that integrates, analyzes, applies, and critiques several sociological concepts and research findings from this course individually, together, and with additional sources from your own literature review and archival study.


You must incorporate the findings from at least five outside sources of original academic research in this essay.  You may also include additional sources for examples or background information, but only reputable, peer-reviewed academic sources will count toward the reference requirements of your essays.  This means that magazines, newspapers, professional periodicals, or internet sources are only appropriate for examples and illustrations in this project — if you have any questions as to whether a specific source is acceptable for your essay, you should ask your instructor rather than guess.  Also, focus on articles or books presenting original research or theories, not on those reviewing others' works or editorializing about opposing approaches.  Reference works, textbooks, and literature reviews are all excellent places to begin your search, but you must find and read the original in order to develop your own reaction.  Ask your instructor for source approval if in doubt.


You should also consider incorporating relevant and reputable statistical and other social scientific data collected by researchers, governments, and other agencies and organizations.  A wealth of such archived data is publicly accessible through the Internet, and their use can help you better understand your issue and develop a stronger analysis and critique. Again, if in doubt, ask your instructor for approval of your data source.


If you do not properly cite those external sources that contributed to your work, then you are guilty of plagiarism.  This will not be tolerated and may result in immediate and serious academic penalties.  If you have any questions as to when and how to use citations and references in you essays, please contact your instructor.  Your final essay will also be formatted according to the relevant portions of the American Psychological Association Style Guide.  The main text of your essay will consist of no more than 3,500 words (or about fifteen pages).  While it possible to construct a successful essay in fewer words, this assignment is comprehensive and detailed enough that most students will find it a challenge to successfully address all of its points in the allotted space.  Begin work on your essay early and leave plenty of time for revision to assure the best possible grade.


 


SO208 CORE ASSESSMENT


Begin by identifying yourself on the dimensions commonly associated with social inequalities: social class (income, wealth, (current and intended) education level, occupational prestige (associated with current or planned career), race, ethnicity, and gender.  In addition, you might also identify yourself on dimensions associated with less traditional inequalities, such as national origin,, sexual identity or preference, age, weight, able-bodiedness, and so forth.  Explain where you fit and how that affects the life chances for you and others like you.  Use theoretical concepts and empirical findings from class materials, other relevant research, and archival data sources to describe and analyze your “place” in the world.  Why do you think our society stratifies individuals and groups on these dimensions and not others?  Use important theoretical concepts to perform this analysis.  Discuss how various ideas might be synthesized to produce a better explanation.


Then select two people who differ from you on several of these dimensions.  Talk to them and ask them where they think they fit in our society's opportunity structure and how they think it affects their life chances.  Compare their assessment with your own analysis of their position and with available data.  Compare and contrast all three of your positions in the opportunity structure.  Do they perceive themselves differently than you did?  Use the theories and concepts from the class to explain any differences between your respective objective chances and subjective assessments.  Do you each have accurate or inaccurate expectations?  Why?


Who has the greatest advantages and disadvantages among your three examples?  Why?  How?  Which attributes have given each of you the greatest advantages and disadvantages?  How do the dimensions interact with one another to produce additional effects (for example, it is different to be white and female, white and male, or black and male, etc.)?  Suggest what individual choices and public policies would be most likely to even out the life chances among your cases.  How likely are these to come about?


Project yourself twenty years into the future.  Are these inequalities likely to persist?  Why or why not?  Where would you expect each of you to be in that time?  Why?  How do these subjective expectations correspond with the major applicable theories of inequality and with relevant trend data?


Finally, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of your analysis, and of the conceptual tools and social scientific data you used in your efforts.  If the general public, or members of the groups you analyze in your essay, were to know what you now know, what would be the individual and social consequences, if any?  Why?  Explain and justify all assertions with appropriate logic and evidence.

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

 

Curriculum

1.    There will be a total of 6 quizzes which will cover a minimum of two chapters from your text.
 
      a.     Quiz #1: Covers Chapter 1 & 2

b.    Quiz #2: Covers Chapters 3 & 4

c.     Quiz #3: Covers Chapters 5 & 6

d.    Quiz #4: Covers Chapters 7 & 8

e.    Quiz #5: Covers Chapters 9 & 10

f.      Quiz #6: Covers Chapters 11 & 12

2.    There will be one final comprehensive exam which will cover all 14 chapters. The final exam will consist of five essay questions. Please retain your quizzes after grading to use as a study guide since some of the material may be integrated with new questions for the final exam. 

3.    There will be a final core assessment required for this course. See assignment detail above for paper guidelines.

4.    In Class Participation: Grading for in class participation will be based on attendance, ability to answer questions when called upon for the readings assigned, and 100%

5.    Homework assignments: There will only be three assignments requiring you to view and analyze videos which are topical and support material in you text book and in class lectures. Questions will need to be answered for each assignment. 

Grading:

 

Grading Distribution is as Follows:

 

Total Possible Points: 1000
 
A = 900 – 1000

B = 800 – 899

C = 700 – 799

D = 600 – 699

F = 599 or below

 

Point Allocation is as Follows:

1.    Class Participation: 25 points per week-total of 200 points

2.    Quizzes: 50 points each-total of 300 points.

3.    Homework: 50 points each total of 150 points

4.    Final Exam: 150 points

5.    Core Assessment: 200 points

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

Class Rules/Assignment Expectation & Guidelines:

Typing Guidelines. 

Core Assessments are to be typed. Assessments will be typed in 12 font, Times New Roman, with one inch margins, double spaced, with a cover page. References for your core assessment will be completed in APA style format. There are no exceptions on these guidelines. Guidelines for APA style can be found with Park University online and there are also several sites on the APA format.

Homework Assignments must are to be typed. Homework will be typed in 12 font, Times New Roman, with one inch margins, and single spaced.  Some homework options may require that you reference your text book. In text citation and reference list must be completed in APA style form. Failure to cite references will be considered plagiarism and will result in a zero for your final grade. There are no exceptions on these guidelines.  

Class rules: ALL cell phones are to be turned off after class begins. No texting during class. First offense will receive a warning. The ensuing offenses will result in losing 25 % percent of your in class participation grade for each offense. Students are expected to be respectful to each other during class discussion. Unruly/disruptive students will be asked to leave.

Missed quizzes: If you are absent and miss a quiz, you have until the next class period to make up the quiz unless you have made other arrangements with the instructor. No exceptions…failure to make up a quiz by the next class period will result in a zero for a grade.

Late assignments: All assignments turned in late will be penalized. FOR LATE ASSIGNMENTS YOU WILL LOSE 5 POINTS AUTOMATICALLY OFF OF YOUR FINAL GRADE FOR EACH DAY THAT IT IS LATE. No exceptions. If your assignment is late I recommend you e-mail it to me as soon as possible instead of waiting until the next class period to avoid losing further points.

Reading assignments: Follow the schedule 100%. You are responsible for all readings assigned according the schedule. Assigned chapters and readings must be completed before class. You will be expected to have read the assigned readings and will be called on during

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

 

Sat. 8/14: Review Class Schedule & Syllabus; Chapter 1-An Introduction to the Study of Social Inequality; Chapter 2-Economic Inequality.

Sat. 8/21: Chapter 3-Status Inequality; Chapter 4-Political Inequality; Quiz #1 (chap. 1 & 2). 

Sat. 8/28: Chapter 5-Sex & Gender Inequality; Chapter 6-Sexual Orientation & Inequality; Chapter 7-Racial & Ethnic Inequality; Quiz #2 (chap. 3 & 4); Begin on Homework Assignment #1-Global Inequality.

Sat. 9/4: Homework Assignment #1 Due; Mandatory online (ecompanion) discussion on Chapter 8-Classical Explanations of Inequality; Homework Assignment #2-People Like Us.

Sat. 9/11: Homework Assignment #2 Due; Chapter 8-Classical Explanations of Inequality. Chapter 9-Contemporary Explanations of Inequality; Chapter 10-Impact of Inequality on Personal Life Chances; Quiz #3 (chap. 5 & 6); Homework Assignment #3-Sicko. 

Sat. 9/18: Homework Assignment #3 Due;  Chapter 11-Deviance Protest & Inequality; Chapter 12-Social Inequality & Social Movements; Quizzes 4 & 5 (chap. 7, 8, 9, 10).

Sat. 9/25: Chapter 13-Social Mobility & Status Attainment; Openness in U.S. Society; Chapter 14-Justice & Legitimacy; Assessments of the Structure of Inequality; Quiz #6 (chap. 11 & 12).

Sat. 10/2: Final Core Assessment/Paper due. Final Exam.

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life.   Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 92

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2009-2010 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Critically, creatively and thoroughly evaluates at least 3 well-selected course materials, and their application and conclusions, as used in the assignment.  Identifies and successfully defends at least 3 strengths and 3 weaknesses.  Goes beyond assignment expectations in the quantity and quality of critical evaluation.
•  Attempts to justify most arguments through the integrated application of comprehensive and detailed critical reasoning and scientific evidence beyond the level of a lower division course.
•  Reflexively and creatively evaluates at least 3 strengths and 3 weakness of their own and at least 3 others' assumptions, arguments, analyses, conclusions, and applications.
 
•  Critically evaluates appropriate selected course materials, and outside academic sources appropriate to a lower division course.  Identifies at least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of most concepts or positions, and justifies their evaluation through reason and evidence.
•  Attempts to justify most arguments through the application of critical reasoning and scientific evidence appropriate to a lower division course.
•  Reflexively identifies at least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of their own and at least 2 others' assumptions, arguments, analyses, conclusions, and applications.
 
•  Demonstrates little critical evaluation (perhaps 3 or 4 incomplete attempts overall), or such evaluation presented is inappropriate to the assignment or topic.  Fails to offer a balanced evaluation of some concepts or positions.  
•  Justifies no more than 4 or 5 of their arguments in an appropriate manner.  Fails to integrate appropriate and sufficiently detailed critical reasoning or scientific evidence.
•  Fails to demonstrate critical reflexivity, or presents biased arguments against those positions with which they disagree or for those arguments or evidence that supports their pre-existing biases.
 
•  Demonstrates no critical evaluation — or makes 2 or more  major, or many minor, critical errors.  Modes of evaluation are inappropriate to the assignment and level of the course.
•  Fails to offer any appropriate justification for arguments.  Uses little critical reasoning or scientific evidence, none at all, or such reason and evidence provided is wholly inappropriate.
•  May evidence merely seeking to confirm their pre-existing opinions without subjecting them to critical testing.
 
Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Displays particular judgment in selecting and integrating at least 5 outside academic sources.
•  Integrates, compares and contrasts differing sources and perspectives with no major errors and no more that 2 minor errors.
•  Incorporates at least 1 or 2 sources from popular or mainstream media as particularly apt illustrations of course content.
•  Draws at least 4 accurate and defensible connections among the concepts and sources used.
 
•  Correctly integrates at least 4 outside academic sources appropriate to the assignment.
•  Integrates, compares and contrasts differing sources and perspectives with no major errors and no more than a few minor errors.
•  May also incorporate sources from popular or mainstream media, but correctly distinguishes between scientific and non-scientific outside sources, as appropriate, and uses the latter only for illustration and not justification.
•  Draws at least 3 connections among concepts and sources with no major errors.
 
•  Attempts to integrate 2 to 3 outside academic sources, but does so with at least 1 major error or with several minor errors.
•  Includes mostly sources on one side of an issue where there is legitimate and obvious disciplinary disagreement.
•  Evidences little discernment between academic and popular sources.
•  Draws no more than 2 or 3 connections among concepts and sources.  May contain a serious error or several minor errors.
 
•  No attempt to integrate outside academic sources.  Contains more than 1 major error or many minor errors.  No significant attempt at synthesis.
•  Evidences no discernment between academic and popular sources.
•  Draws no significant connections among concepts and sources.
 
Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Demonstrates exceptional command of at least 5 concepts and theoretical perspectives presented in the course.  Introduces at least 2 additional relevant findings or theoretical and conceptual distinctions.
•  Successfully analyzes at least 5 appropriate selected course materials, and integrates at least 3 outside sources into their analysis, without major error.
 
•  Demonstrates sufficient command of at least 4 appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives presented in the course.
•  Successfully analyzes at least 4 appropriate selected course materials, and at least 2 outside sources, without major error.
 
•  Demonstrates insufficient command of appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives with at least 1 major error or a few minor ones.
•  Analysis of selected course materials appropriate to a lower division course contains 1 or 2 major errors or several minor ones.
•  Uses inappropriate reason, evidence or justification.
 
•  Fails to demonstrate any sufficient command of appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives.
•  Analysis of inappropriate course materials or contains at least 2 major errors or many minor ones.  No attempt at analysis of outside materials or examples.
 
Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Demonstrates and justifies command of factual course materials.  Employs at least 4 salient outside examples.
•  Applies course materials to at least 4 extended and developed personal, social, and historical examples without error.
• Illustrates and supports most points through examples, details, and supporting information.
• Effectively illustrates and supports most points through well-chosen and integrated relevant examples, details, and supporting information.
 
•  Demonstrates and justifies sufficient command of factual materials presented in the course, and 3 or 4 outside sources.
•  Applied course materials to at least 3 extended personal, social, or historical examples without major error.
•  Provides adequate illustration and support of all points through relevant examples, details, and supporting information.
 
•  Demonstrates insufficient command of factual course materials.  Fails to meaningfully incorporate outside examples (no more than 3 to 4 attempts).
•  Inappropriate or insufficient personal, social, or historical examples.  Any applications, such as there are, may contain 1 major error or several minor errors.
•  Provides inadequate illustration and support of a few key points or several minor ones.
 
•  Fails to demonstrate meaningful command of factual course materials.  Rarely justifies their inclusion or makes serious and consistent omissions.
•  Lacks meaningful, relevant, or significant personal, social, or historical examples, or they are completely inappropriate to the assignment or the level of a lower division course.  May contain 2 or more major errors or many minor errors in application.
•  Provides little, if any, support for even key points.
 
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Responds fully and completely to the assignment using appropriate, direct language.  Includes all major assignment objectives.
•  Uses precise, accurate and expressive language.
•  Well organized, unified, focused, flowing, or has a particularly well-suited opening and closing.
•  Presents a balanced treatment of controversial research or policy issues.
•  Correctly utilizes technical terminology from the course and outside research in a precise manner exceeding the level of a lower division course.
 
•  Responds fully and completely to the assignment using direct language and expresses its purpose clearly at the level of a lower division course.
•  Well-organized, focused, and opens and closes effectively.
•  Presents one side of controversial research or policy issues well and completely, and makes a serious (though perhaps not completely successful) effort to communicate alternatives.
•  Correctly utilizes technical language from the course and outside research in a manner appropriate to the assignment and level of a lower division course.
 
•  Fails to respond fully or completely to the assignment.  Language is sometimes inappropriate, or confusing and does not express its purpose clearly at the level of a lower division course.
•  Lacks some organization or unified argument.  May be unfocused.  Has significant problem with flow or effective opening and closing passages.
•  Evidences bias or makes little effort to communicate serious alternatives.
•  Has at least 1 major, or, more than a few minor, terminological errors.
 
•  Falls significantly short of the assignment strictures and does not achieve the level of a lower division course.  Language is often inappropriate and confusing, and does not express a clear purpose.
•  Is disorganized, disjointed, unfocused, or stilted.  Unsuccessful or lacking in its opening and closing.
•  Evidences serious bias.  Makes no effort to communicate serious alternatives or digresses into mere opinion.
• Has at least 2 major, or many minor, terminological errors.
 
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
•  Has no errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
• Evidences literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills beyond the level of a lower division course.
•  Completely and correctly acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly and indirectly used sources.
•  No errors in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
 
•  Has no major errors, and no more than a few minor errors, in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
•  Evidences basic literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills appropriate to a lower division course.
•  Consistently, but not completely acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly used sources.  May evidence minor problems with indirect attribution or a few small errors in reference format.
•  1 or a few minor errors in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
 
• Has 1 or more major, or more than a few minor, errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
•  Incompletely or inconsistently displays literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills at the level of the course.
•  Incompletely or inconsistently acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly used sources.  May evidence 1 major problem, or a few minor problems, with indirect attribution or several errors in reference format.
•  1 major error, or a few minor errors, in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
 
• Has 2 or more major, or many minor, errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
• Has 2 or more major errors, or many minor errors, in literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, or information processing skills, or fails to demonstrate most of these at the level of an introductory course.
• Has 2 or more major errors, or many minor errors, in acknowledging and documenting citations and references.  May evidence 2 or more major problems with indirect attribution or may misattribute sources.  Reference and citation format is inconsistent or incorrect.
•  Has two or more 2 major errors, or several minor errors, in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
 
First Disciplinary Competency                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Outcomes
3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Detailed and justified analysis of the roles of status, power, and access to resources within a society, illustrates these ideas with multiple real world examples, and evaluates possible consequences and solutions through well-developed reason and evidence (provides more than 3 extended examples). Analyzes the roles of status, power, and access to resources within a society, illustrates these ideas with real world examples, and evaluates possible consequences and solutions (provides 3 or more extended examples). Incomplete or unjustified analysis of the roles of status, power, and access to resources within a society (no more than 1 or 2 attempts at extended examples). Illustrations of these ideas are inappropriate, unclear, or unsupported.  Evaluation fails to develop and defend student assessment of consequences and solutions. No significant analysis, illustration, or evaluation of the mechanisms or consequences related to the operation of status, power, or resource inequalities. 
Second Disciplinary Competency                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Outcomes
5, 7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Detailed and supported discussion of the causes and consequences of prejudice, discrimination, and aggression as they enforce at least 3 patterns of inequality.  Specific analysis of the contributions of culture, socialization, and interactional factors in perpetuating inequalities. Explains the major causes and consequences of prejudice, discrimination, and aggression as they enforce at least 2 existing patterns of inequality. And analyzes how culture, socialization, and false consciousness reinforce and perpetuate inequalities. At least 1 major, or several minor, conceptual or evidentiary errors in their analysis of the causes and consequences of prejudice, discrimination, aggression and inequality. More than 2 major errors or many minor errors in their analysis of the causes and consequences of prejudice, discrimination, aggression and inequality. 

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Last Updated:7/1/2010 10:46:32 AM