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CJ 233 Introduction to Security
Christopher, Kenneth


Mission Statement: Park University provides access to a quality higher education experience that prepares a diverse community of learners to think critically, communicate effectively, demonstrate a global perspective and engage in lifelong learning and service to others.

Vision Statement: Park University, a pioneering institution of higher learning since 1875, will provide leadership in quality, innovative education for a diversity of learners who will excel in their professional and personal service to the global community.

Course

CJ 233 Introduction to Security

Semester

SP 2012 HO

Faculty

Dr. Kenneth Christopher, D.P.A.

Title

Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice

Degrees/Certificates

Doctor of Public Administration (Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 1999)
Master of Public Administration (Florida International University, Miami, FL, 1983)
Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice (University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 1976)

Office Location

Park University Home Campus, Parkville, MO, Mabee Learning Center, MA208B

Office Hours

Monday, Wednesday 2:45pm-3:45pm, or by appointment

Daytime Phone

Office: 816-584-6597

Other Phone

Mobile: 816-809-6494

E-Mail

kenneth.christopher@park.edu

Web Page

http://www.park.edu/cj

Semester Dates

January 16- May 12, 2012

Class Days

Monday and Wednesday

Class Time

1:30pm-2:45pm

Prerequisites

none

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:
 

Introduction to Security (8th Edition)

by Robert J. Fischer, Edward Halibozek, and Gion Green

Butterworth-Heinemann, (2008)

ISBN: 13-978-0-7506-8432-3

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:
The instructor will be using eCompanion during the term for instructor-student communications, distributing handouts and supplemental readings, document sharing, threaded discussions, online quizzes, posting review material, recording grades, posting PowerPoint slides, webliography, etc. Students can access the course website using their student ID and OPEN password via:

http://parkonline.org/

From time to time, the instructor will refer students to supplemental required readings, audiovisuals, case studies, articles, computer resources, etc. which will be posted on eCompanion and/or provided as supplemental handouts in class. It is the student's responsibility to have reliable access to eCompanion and maintain currency on all assigned material.

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:
CJ233 Introduction to Security: This course covers the basic principles of security and loss prevention that is common and fundamental to all areas of protection of personal property from historical and modern day points of view. Topics of discussion will include: the security industry, the threat environment, risk analysis, fundamentals of physical security, safety, and accident prevention, and common security problems. 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
 

The instructor's overarching approach to education is to emphasize the broadening of intellect as a strategy for developing problem solving and critical thinking skills.  It is essential to integrate the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed in the classroom into the active lives of students, both as individuals and as members of social groups.  It is not the facts we learn, but how we use them that provides us with the tools needed to better the human condition.

The instructor will use lectures, class discussions, group activities, handouts, supplementary readings, audio-visual aids, examinations, case studies, and other methods to facilitate learning.  Student performance expectations:

  1. The instructor assumes the student has read and understands the syllabus and expects students to ask questions if any aspect of the course requirements is unclear.
  2. Students are expected to demonstrate that they are meeting the course objectives by attending class; actively participating in class discussions, activities, and exercises; timely submitting all written assignments; delivering required oral presentations; and sitting for any scheduled examinations.
  3. Students are assigned readings from the required text(s) and/or supplemental text materials in advance of each class meeting and are expected to be prepared for class.
  4. Students are expected to ask questions if they do not understand something.
  5. The instructor encourages a mutual learning environment, where students can freely raise questions in the search for understanding.
  6. Students are expected to listen to each other, ask questions, raise concerns, and provide the respect that each individual deserves.
  7. Students are encouraged to bring any items to class which they feel will add substantially to the learning environment.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Show an understanding of the history of security, crime prevention and early law enforcement.
  2. Demonstrate an understanding of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Civil Rights Act of 1991.
  3. Evaluate the purpose of risk assessment.
  4. Illustrate security's role in fire prevention and safety, crime and threats to the environment, and crime prevention.
  5. Explain the legal aspects of private security.


Core Assessment:

For CJ 233, all students will complete a consolidated essay which examines the following seven basic topical issues relating to the study of Introduction to Security:

  1. What events in medieval England brought about the creation and use of private night watches and patrols?
  2. What are the steps involved in a good risk-management program?
  3. What should be the role of security in preventing crime?
  4. What should be the role of security in preventing fire?
  5. Why is a practical knowledge of the law important to the security officer and the security manager?
  6. What is the Occupational Safety and Health Act and what effect has it had on organizational safety operations?
  7. How has federal labor legislation such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Civil Rights Act of 1990 impacted the security industry?

The essay should provide complete and equitable treatment of all seven topical areas, but the issues and researched material should be integrated to provide a consolidated examination of the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. The essay should contain the following technical components:

  1. A cover or title page
  2. A body of text, 6-8 typed, double-spaced pages (1,500 to 2,000 words) in length
  3. A reference page containing a minimum of 8 course-external resources

Written in APA or MLA Style 

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

 

Periodic Assignments (4)
 
Periodic assignments, which may be oral presentations or written assignments, in-class or online via eCompanion, individual or group activities, will be administered throughout the term on a variable schedule, generally 2 during the first 8 weeks and 2 during the second 8 weeks.

Quizzes (4)

Quizzes will cover material throughout the course (refer to course schedule). Each quiz will cover the required readings and assigned materials. Successive quizzes will only cover material which you have not already been quizzed on. 


Security Project

This is an applied security research project. Students will design and report on the application of security strategies in an actual physical location. Students will focus on security's role in threats to the environment, including natural and manmade hazards. 

Students will identify a Target Environment (TE); research and assess potential risks; and develop a security plan.

Students will complete the project in three phases (refer to course schedule).   

Each period, you will work on one phase of the project.  The text for each phase should be about 750 words, not counting reference pages, appendices, surveys, illustrations, etc. You must demonstrate that you understand the terminology and the concepts used and you know how to apply them. You must demonstrate that you can synthesize, analyze, and evaluate information. You must correctly use APA format in source citation both in the body of your text and in the references. 

Project Components:

  1. Phase 1 - Identify Target Environment (TE), Problem, and Literature Review:  Identify a REAL community or organizational environment, and security or crime problems within this TE. Identify and discuss the problems. Who is affected? Are there conflicting perspectives in the TE about the extent of the problems? If so, explain them.  Any other relevant situational issues (historical, social, cultural, economic, political). Establish the extent of the problems. If statistics are available related to the particular problems, include them here.  Once the problems are identified, develop a literature review which discusses how to reduce the risks associated with the problems. Report on the academic literature which informs on the problem identified in the TE. Report on which programs have been successful, and which have not been successful. Use PRIMARY (interviews, agency documents, observations, and the course text) and OTHER (books and/or referred journal articles). A minimum of FIVE (5) resources is expected.  Any resource listed in your Reference section should have a corresponding in-text citation.
  1. Phase 2 - Risk Assessment/Security Survey: Conduct a quantifiable security risk assessment and survey of the TE, and provide a narrative report of your findings. Sample risk assessment and security survey methodologies and instruments are provided in your textbook and will be made available during the course.
  1. Phase 3 - Design Security Plan: Design a solution which will reduce the occurrence and risk of the problems you identified in literature review and risk assessment/survey in the TE.  Use the TE’s geography, institutions, resources, and potentialities as a framework for your solution. Use resources provided by class material, lectures, course texts, and your own independent research. Demonstrate how your solution activates organizational and/or community engagement, consultations, and partnerships. Justify the design of your solution through academic literature which supports your approach. Include an evaluation program – show how you intend to measure the successes and failures of your solution.

Your Security Project elements will be assessed using the following rubric:

Target Environment (TE) and Problem Identification (20%)
Actual organizational environment
Identified security problema in TE
Discussed problems
Who is affected?
Conflicting perspectives about problem?
Discussed relevant situational issues
Established extent of problems to be prevented
Provide any relevant statistics on problems

Literature Review (20%)Reviewed literature
Literature relates to problems
Minimum of 5 primary/other resources
Resources in Reference list have corresponding in-text citations

Risk Assessment/Security Survey (20%)
Conducts quantifiable risk assessment
Conducts and reports on survey of TE

Design Security Solution (20%)
Solution designed to reduce risk of problem identified
Uses TE as framework for solution
Uses resources from class and independent research
Demonstrates how solution activates organizational/community
engagement
Justifies solution using literature

Structural Components (20%)                                                               
Appendix/support material
Text body of 750 words for each of 3 phases
Demonstrates understanding of terms/concepts
Demonstrates application of terminology and concepts
Demonstrates synthesis, analysis, and evaluation of terms/concepts
Uses correct APA or MLA format in source citations in text/references
Spelling, grammar, sentence structure
Clarity of expression

Core Assessment Assignment

For CJ 233, all students will complete the Core Assessment Assignment, as detailed above. The Core Assessment Assignment will be assessed using the Core Assessment Rubric (see bottom of Syllabus).

Final Exam

The Final Exam will be comprehensive, covering the required textbook, the class lectures, and any supplementary material provided for students during the term. 

Grading:
 

Course Assignments Schedule and Grade Distribution

Assignment

Points

Total
Points

Total %

Periodic Assignments (4)

50

200

20 

Quizzes (4)

50

200

20

Security/Crime Prevention Project (3 Written Components)

67

200

20

Core Assessment Assignment 

200

200

20

Final Exam (Comprehensive)

200

200

20

Total

1,000

100%

Grading Plan

Letter Grade Policy

Letter

Number of Points

Percent

A

900 – 1,000

90-100

B

800 - 899

80-89.9

C

700 - 799

70-79.9

D

600 - 699

60-69.9

F

599 or below

Below 59.9

Late Submission of Course Materials:

ALL COURSE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZZES, HOMEWORK, ETC. ARE DUE AS PUBLISHED ON THE COURSE WEBSITE, THE COURSE SCHEDULE, AND COURSE SYLLABUS.

  • Late submissions will be downgraded by one whole letter grade (e.g., A to B, B to C, etc.) for each CALENDAR DAY that the assignment is late.
  • Course assignments (weekly discussions, projects, essays, etc.) not submitted within THREE (3) CALENDAR DAYS OF THE DUE DATE WILL BE GRADED AS AN "F" (zero points). No assignment will be accepted for grading if MORE THAN 3 DAYS LATE. No assignment will be accepted, reviewed, or graded AFTER the last scheduled date of the course.

  • MAKEUP POLICY:  Students who fail to complete a scheduled assessment component will receive a grade of 0 (F) for the assessment item. Students experiencing some type of EMERGENCY (e.g., personal illness, car accident, family issue, etc.), which will impact their ability to complete a scheduled assessment component must personally contact the instructor as soon as possible BEFORE the scheduled assessment, or as soon as practicable.  Makeups for assessment components MAY be offered on a case-by-case basis, subject to written documentation from the student substantiating  the EMERGENCY (e.g., medical note, police report, etc.) and notice from the student. THE INSTRUCTOR HAS NO OBLIGATION TO OFFER A MAKEUP FOR ANY ASSESSMENT.

    Classroom Rules of Conduct:

     General Course Policies

    A class week is defined as the period of time between Monday 12:01 am CST and Sunday at 11:59 PM CST. The first week begins the first day of the term/semester. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed and successfully submitted by the posted due date.

    Create a back up file of every piece of work you submit for grading. This will ensure that a computer glitch or a glitch in cyberspace won't erase your efforts.

    General email: Students should use Park University email for private messages to the instructor.

    In eCompanion, online threaded discussions are public messages and all writings in this area will be viewable by the entire class.

    PLEASE silence all cell phones, wireless communication devices, electronics, etc. while in class. 

    If a cell phone must be used during class (including text messaging), please do so outside the classroom.

    The use of laptop personal computers to take notes or conduct course-related research is permitted during class, as long as it is not a distraction to the instructor or to other students. 

    E-mailing, interactive chatting, texting, instant messaging, web-surfing, listening to music, watching videos, and any other non-course-related computing activities are considered distracting to the instructor as well as to other students and are not permitted during class sessions.

    The instructor reserves the right to restrict or prohibit the use of laptop computers or other electronic devices during class for any reason. Students who repeatedly engage in distracting activities will be requested to leave the classroom.

    While class is in session, students may NOT use headphones or ear buds connected to any electronic device. PLEASE show each other the same respect you would want by actively listening to others and maintaining civility in the discourse.

    Behavior considered to be discriminatory, obscene, profane, humiliating, prejudicial, harassing, annoying, or otherwise disturbing to other students, the instructor, and/or the learning environment will not be tolerated. Students can expect to be held accountable for their behavior in accordance with federal, state, and local laws, as well as Park University policies, rules, conduct codes, and procedures.

    REMEMBER that we are all different and that we grow and develop positively by practicing acceptance, tolerance, and understanding of each other's opinions, customs, and ideas.

     



     

    Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

      The following schedule is subject to change:
     

    Week

    Day-Date

    Topic

    Reading

    Assignments Due

    1

    Mon Jan 16

    NO CLASS MEETING-Martin Luther King Holiday

     

     

     

    Wed Jan 18

    Homeland Security –What has Happened to Security Since 9/11? 

    Fischer, Halibozek & Green (FHG) Chp 1

     

    2

    Mon Jan 23

    Origins and Development of Security

     

    FHG, Chp 2

     

     

    Wed Jan 25

    Defining Security’s Role

     

    FHG Chp 3

     

    3

    Mon Jan 30

    The Proprietary Security Organization

     

    FHG Chp 4

     

     

    Wed Feb 1

    Career Opportunities in Loss Prevention

    FHG Chp 5

    Quiz #1 (Chps 1-4)

    4

    Mon Feb 6

    Security Education, Training, Certification, and Regulation

     

    FHG Chp 6

     

     

    Wed Feb 8

    GUEST LECTURER (TBA)

    Topic to be announced

     

    5

    Mon Feb 13

    NO CLASS MEETING

    Security and the Law

    FHG Chp 7

     

    Alternative Class Activity to be posted on eCompanion

     

     

    Wed Feb 15

    Security and the Law

    FHG Chp 7

     

     

     

    6

    Mon Feb 20

    NO CLASS-Presidents Day Holiday

     

     

     

    Wed Feb 22

    Risk Analysis, Security Surveys, and Insurance

     

    FHG Chp 8

     

    Security Project Phase 1

    7

    Mon Feb 27

    The Outer Defenses: Building and Perimeter Protection

     

    FHG Chp 9

     

     

     

    Wed Feb 29

    Interior and Exterior Security Concerns

     

    FHG Chp 10

     

     

    8

    Mon Mar 5

    The Inner Defenses: Intrusions and Access Control

     

    FHG Chp 11

     

    Quiz #2 (Chapters 5-10)

     

     

    Wed Mar 7

    Contingency Planning, Fire Protection, Emergency Response, and Safety

     

    FHG Chp 12

     

     

    SPRING BREAK

    Sat Mar 10-Sun Mar 18

    NO CLASSES

     

     

    9

    Mon Mar 19

    Internal Theft Controls and Personnel Issues

     

    FHG Chp 13

     

    Security Project Phase 2

     

    Wed Mar 21

    Internal Theft Controls and Personnel Issues

     

    FHG Chp 13

     

     

    10

    Mon Mar 26

    Transportation/Cargo Security

     

    FHG Chp 14

     

    Quiz #3 (Chps 11-13)

     

    Wed Mar 28

    Violence and Drug Use in the Workplace

     

    FHG Chp 15

     

     

    11

    Mon Apr 2

    Retail Security

     

    FHG Chp 16

     

     

     

    Wed Apr 4

    Retail Security

     

    FHG Chp 16

     

     

    12

    Mon Apr 9

    Terrorism and Other Tools of Destruction

     

    FHG Chp 17

     

     

     

    Wed Apr 11

    Terrorism and Other Tools of Destruction

     

    FHG Chp 17

     

     

    13

    Mon Apr 16

    Computers, Information, and Information Systems Security

     

    FHG Chp 18

     

    Quiz #4 (Chps 14-17)

     

     

    Wed Apr 18

    Computers, Information, and Information Systems Security

     

    FHG Chp 18

     

    Security Project Phase 3

     

    14

    Mon Apr 23

    Selected Security Threats of the 21st Century

     

    FHG Chp 19

     

     

     

    Wed Apr 25

    Selected Security Threats of the 21st Century

     

    FHG Chp 19

     

    Core Assessment

    15

    Mon Apr 30

    Security: The Future

     

    FHG Chp 20

     

     

     

    Wed May 2

    Security: The Future

     

    FHG Chp 20

     

     

    16

    Wed May 9

    Final Exam

    1pm-3pm

     

     

    Final Exam Comprehensive

    Academic Honesty:
    Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty (www.park.edu/current or http://www.park.edu/faculty/).from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 93

    Plagiarism:
    Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 93
    All work submitted must be the student's own.  Any assistance received by a student in preparing papers or reports must be fully acknowledged and disclosed in the work submitted.  Students must cite and reference any sources from which data, ideas or words are used, either quoted directly or paraphrased.

    Please be aware that using other's words and ideas without proper quotations and citations is a violation of Park University's Academic Honesty Policy. This course instructor takes this seriously and reports all violations to the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the College for Distance Learning.

    Generally, for the first instance, a student receives a grade of zero (F) for the assignment and a warning. A second instance will result in failing the course.

    It can't be said any clearer: IF YOU CUT AND PASTE TEXT FROM AN ONLINE SOURCE INTO YOUR ASSIGNMENTS (INCLUDING DISCUSSIONS) AND DO NOT USE QUOTATION MARKS, IN-TEXT and END CITATIONS, YOU ARE PLAGIARIZING and VIOLATING THE ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY.

    All students are advised to review the policy detailed in the Park University Undergraduate Catalog.

    PLEASE REVIEW AND CHECK YOUR ASSIGNMENTS CLOSELY TO BE SURE YOU ARE NOT PLAGIARIZING.

    Attendance Policy:
    Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

    1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
    2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
    3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
    4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
    5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
    6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

    Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 96

    Disability Guidelines:
    Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .
    If you have ANY accessibility or issue of disability, please SELECT the Help and Resources link on the Course Home Menu. That takes you to the Online Student Help and Resource Page.

    On that page, there is a "menu" on the left side of the page. About half way down you will find a link to "Accessibility and ADA". SELECT that link and you will have access to ALL of the ADA and Accessibility information at Park University.

    Additional Information:
     

    Changes or Modifications


    The instructor reserves the right to modify the course content and schedule without prior notice and in accordance with the requirements of the course. 


    Contacting the Instructor


    The instructor is available and willing to assist students.  Please feel free to contact the instructor at any time if there are questions or need for assistance.  Appointments to meet or discuss outside of class can be arranged by contacting the instructor by telephone, e-mail, or personal communication.  When calling by telephone, if it is necessary to leave a voice-mail message, please indicate a preferred time of day for a response.



    Rubric

    CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
    Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    The essay demonstrates a thorough appraisal of the researched information.  The essay is presented as a congruous and thoughtful exposition of ideas. The essay demonstrates a satisfactory appraisal of the researched information.  The essay is presented as a thoughtful exposition of ideas. The essay demonstrates a minimal appraisal of the researched information.  The essay is presented as a disparate exposition of ideas. The essay demonstrates no appraisal of the researched information.  The essay is presented as an incongruous exposition of ideas. 
    Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    The essay is a consolidated integration of the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. Extends research well beyond minimum requirements. The essay is a presents the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention, but integration of themes is weak. The essay responds to individual issues of security and loss prevention, but without integration or consolidation of ideas. No evidence of combining researched material into a consistent whole. 
    Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    Essay completely examines the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention.  It analyzes key elements using 8 or more course-external sources. Essay examines the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention, but may miss a few points.  It analyzes key elements using 6-7 course-external sources. Essay fails to satisfactorily examine the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. It analyzes key elements using 1-5 course-external sources. Essay fails to examine the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. It uses no course-external sources. 
    Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    The essay shows multiple instances and exceptional understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows sufficient and satisfactory use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay shows minimal use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The essay fails to demonstrate an understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes. 
    Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    Essay conveys complete and exceptional information on the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. Essay conveys sufficient information on the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. Essay conveys minimal information on the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. Essay conveys no information on the fundamental principles of security and loss prevention. 
    Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Outcomes
    1-5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    Essay contains all required technical components: 6-8 pages in length (excluding required cover and reference pages), typed, double-spaced.   Written in APA or MLA Style.  Contains fewer than five grammatical or spelling errors. Essay contains most required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors but errors do not detract from understanding. Written in APA or MLA Style, but may have a few formatting errors. Essay contains few required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors that detract from understanding. APA or MLA Style usage is barely evident. Essay contains no required technical components. There are so many errors in the APA or MLA writing convention, in the paper presentation, or in grammar and/or spelling that it is difficult to read. 

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    Last Updated:1/2/2012 7:54:46 AM