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PO 200 American National Government
Brecke, Ronald


Mission Statement: Park University provides access to a quality higher education experience that prepares a diverse community of learners to think critically, communicate effectively, demonstrate a global perspective and engage in lifelong learning and service to others.

Vision Statement: Park University, a pioneering institution of higher learning since 1875, will provide leadership in quality, innovative education for a diversity of learners who will excel in their professional and personal service to the global community.

Course

PO 200 American National Government

Semester

SP 2012 HO

Faculty

Ronald Brecke

Title

Professor

Office Location

Mackay 20A

Office Hours

Office Hours M, 10-1:30; T, 1-5:30; or by appointment

Daytime Phone

584-6346

E-Mail

rbrecke@park.edu

Web Page

http://captain.park.edu/polisci/

Class Days

--T-R--

Class Time

11:35-12:50

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:

 

 

Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials, 2011-2012 edition.

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:
 

http://budgethero.publicradio.org/widget/widget.php

http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/obama_budget_11.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/11/13/weekinreview/deficits-graphic.html

http://crfb.org/stabilizethedebt/#

http://www.kowaldesign.com/budget/index.html

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.


Course Description:

A survey of the functions and processes of the three branches of American national government. The changing roles of the branches and their relationship to the public will be emphasized.

This is a course about the three constitutional branches of our government.  We will examine the roles of each of the branches separately and we will investigate how the process of government works as the three branches join as a system.

 

We will study the formal constitutional arrangements of our government as well as the informal relationships that have been created.  We will also look at the bureaucratization of the three branches and what affect that has had on the process of government.

 

The purpose of this course is to give you an understanding of the design of our national government, how it works and why it works the way it does.  We will refer to ideas discussed in the Constitutional Convention in the late 18th Century as well as contemporary issues such as the crisis in the Mideast and the 2004 presidential election.  In doing so, you will have the opportunity to become a well-informed participative citizen.

3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:
The facilitator’s educational philosophy is one of interactiveness based on lectures, readings, quizzes, dialogues, examinations, internet, videos, web sites and writings. The facilitator will engage each learner in what is referred to as disputatious learning to encourage the lively exploration of ideas, issues and contradictions.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain the historical and constitutional basis for the federal government's structure and its system of checks and balances
  2. Evaluate the role of public opinion, media and interest groups in the development of public policy and elections
  3. Analyze the conduct of elections and explain group and individual voting behavior.
  4. Analyze the creation of policy and administration of government programs


Core Assessment:

Core Assessment

All Park University courses must include a core assessment that measures Departmental Learning Outcomes.  The purpose of this assessment is to determine if expectations have been met concerning mastery of learning outcomes across all instructional modalities.  The core assessment for this course is a portfolio of written work and will account for at least 20% of the total grade for the course and cover all four of the Core Learning Outcomes.

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

 

   

Balancing the U.S. Budget (50% of your final course grade)

No one doubts the financial problems facing the U.S. Government, not to mention most of the state and local governments as well. The purpose of this project is to get you to see the difficulties faced by our elected officials in Washington regarding spending and taxation. You will be the source of money for the Federal Government and the recipients of its programs in the future.

The following is a basic break down of spending and revenue for national, state and local government in the United States.

 http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/obama_budget_11.html

(You will be sent all sites in an email to make it easier for you to link to them)

full screen

GDP: $15,299.0 billion(1)

United States Federal
State
and Local Government Spending

US CA >
Pop: 311.5 million

-5yr -1yr   Fiscal Year 2011 in $ billion   +1yr +4yr

Change
View: people default radical census COFOG

Fed
(2)

Gov.
Xfer(3)

State
(3)

Local
(3)

Total

charts

[+] 

Pensions

787.6

0.0

190.7

38.8

1,017.2

[+] 

Sickness and disability

6.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.9

[+] 

Old age

780.8

0.0

190.7

38.8

1,010.3

[+] 

Health Care

898.0

-312.2

462.6

151.6

1,200.0

[+] 

Medical service (Seniors)

497.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

497.3

[+] 

Medical service

0.0

-32.0

115.7

146.6

230.2

[+] 

Public health services

4.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.5

[+] 

R&D Health

38.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

38.5

Health n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Vendor Payments (Welfare)

357.7

-280.2

346.9

5.1

429.5

[+] 

Education

140.9

-84.1

295.4

720.6

1,072.8

[+] 

Pre-primary thru secondary education

61.0

-84.1

8.6

661.1

646.5

[+] 

Tertiary education

31.3

0.0

247.4

45.6

324.3

[+] 

Education not definable by level

48.6

0.0

39.4

14.0

102.0

Subsidiary services to education

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

R&D Education

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Education n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

to display a bar of data in a row or column of this table.
Click on to display a time-series chart of data in a row.

Defense

928.5

0.0

1.3

0.0

929.8

[+] 

Military defense

749.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

749.7

Civil defense

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Veterans

124.5

0.0

1.3

0.0

125.8

[+] 

Foreign military aid

10.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

10.1

[+] 

Foreign economic aid

44.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

44.1

R&D Defence

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Defence n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

[+] 

Welfare

464.6

-46.5

165.8

103.2

687.0

[+] 

Family and children

103.5

0.0

14.1

10.1

127.7

[+] 

Unemployment

106.6

-4.2

70.5

0.2

173.1

[+] 

Housing

64.1

-42.3

16.5

49.4

87.7

[+] 

Social exclusion n.e.c.

190.3

0.0

54.3

43.4

288.0

R&D Social protection

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Social protection n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

10.5

0.0

10.5

[+] 

Protection

57.3

0.0

110.1

206.7

374.0

[+] 

Police services

30.0

0.0

14.5

94.9

139.3

[+] 

Fire-protection services

0.0

0.0

0.0

49.5

49.5

[+] 

Law courts

18.9

0.0

37.2

31.5

87.7

[+] 

Prisons

8.3

0.0

58.4

30.8

97.6

R&D Public order and safety

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Public order and safety n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Transportation

104.2

-53.0

115.8

156.3

323.3

[+] 

Transport

104.2

-53.0

115.8

156.3

323.3

[+] 

General Government

29.0

-0.8

36.4

64.7

129.4

[+] 

Executive and legislative organs, financ

19.9

0.0

36.4

64.7

121.0

[+] 

General services

9.1

-0.8

0.0

0.0

8.4

[+] 

Other Spending

151.4

-40.0

99.5

378.9

589.7

[+] 

Basic research

17.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.1

[+] 

General economic, commercial and labour

4.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.2

[+] 

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunti

32.4

-3.6

21.5

12.4

62.6

[+] 

Fuel and energy

17.6

-0.0

16.9

88.6

123.1

Mining, manufacturing and construction

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Communication

-1.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

-1.2

[+] 

Other industries

0.0

0.0

5.9

1.2

7.1

R&D Economic affairs

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Economic affairs n.e.c.

15.4

0.0

2.5

4.0

21.9

[+] 

Waste management

0.0

0.0

3.3

23.7

27.0

[+] 

Waste water management

0.0

-2.2

1.5

55.6

54.9

[+] 

Pollution abatement

11.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.4

[+] 

Protection of biodiversity and landscape

11.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.7

R&D Environmental protection

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Environmental protection n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Housing development

-0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.5

[+] 

Community development

32.0

0.0

0.0

2.2

34.2

[+] 

Water supply

8.5

-1.8

0.4

60.5

67.7

Street lighting

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

R&D Housing and community amenities

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Housing and community amenities n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

Recreational and sporting services

4.1

0.0

6.7

44.6

55.4

Cultural services

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Broadcasting and publishing services

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Religious and other community services

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

R&D Recreation, culture and religion

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Recreation, culture and religion n.e.c.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

R&D General public services

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

[+] 

General public services n.e.c.

-1.4

0.0

40.8

86.0

125.5

[+] 

Transfers of a general character between

0.0

-32.3

0.0

0.0

-32.3

[+] 

Interest

250.7

0.0

58.8

66.1

375.6

[+] 

Public debt transactions

250.7

0.0

58.8

66.1

375.6

[+] 

Balance

21.7

0.0

-8.9

0.9

13.7

[+] 

Total Spending

3,833.9

-536.6

1,527.5

1,887.8

6,712.5

[+] 

Total

3,833.9

-536.6

1,527.5

1,887.8

6,712.5

[+] 

Federal Deficit

1,266.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

1,266.7

[+] 

Total Spending

3,833.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

3,833.9

[+] 

Total Revenue

-2,567.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

-2,567.2

[+] 

Gross Public Debt

15,144.0

0.0

1,233.3

1,778.2

18,155.5

Please note at the bottom, for the federal government, the listing for the “Federal Deficit” which stands, for the proposed 2011 budget, at $1,266,700,000. That is one trillion, two hundred sixty-six billion, seven hundred million dollars. This is the amount of money that is proposed to be spent by the federal government in 2011 that is over and above the revenue to be taken in for 2011. The chart also shows that our national debt is now over $15 trillion dollars.

Your project in this course is to balance the federal budget. Do not concern yourself with state and local budgets. Each of you individually will be responsible for preparing a balanced budget for this year as part of the course paper requirement. Each of you will also prepare a 15 minute oral/visual presentation of your proposal for the class. After each of you has developed and presented a balanced budget, we will act as a legislative body and hold a debate to try to come up with a balanced budget that a majority of the class can support (see below). One advantage you will have over our elected representatives is that you will not have the added pressures of lobbying and thinking about your constituents/re-election (although you should certainly be aware of those pressures).

You will start your decision making here:

http://budgethero.publicradio.org/widget/widget.php

This is an interactive site that allows you to change spending and revenue for the federal government among various programs. Working on this site will give you a feel for the task you face. Even though the figures in this site have not been completely updated, we will use them as the basis for changes you want to make. When you go to other sites to get information, keep in mind that the data from this site is the basis for decision making although you may run into other figures. They will all be close enough for our purposes.

The Paper

The paper you will write has no required number of pages. That will be determined by you. The paper will include charts that compare current budget and taxing figures with your revised figures. The following are the areas within which you will work (from “Budget Hero”):

Defense and diplomacy (14 cards)

Schools and kids (10 cards)

Science and nature (21 cards)

Housing and living (9 cards)

Miscellaneous (9 cards)

Infrastructure (11 cards)

Healthcare (22 cards)

Social Security (7 cards)

Interest on the debt (0 cards). You are required to do nothing with this area.

Taxes (37 cards)

It is expected that your paper will include changes in each of these except “Interest on the debt” which is controlled by the size of the deficit and will not concern your presentation. So for each of the above 9 areas (not including “interest on the debt) you will have a chart of present spending and a chart of your spending for comparison, in gross figures.

Your paper must also include a narrative of the changes you are making, with references to the charts you prepare. Your narrative must verbally explain the changes you show in your charts. You must then go on to explain why you are making each of the changes you suggest.

A grade of 0-70 (on a 100 point scale)

If you choose to stop at this point, and you have completed all nine comparisons with charts and a narrative with reasons why, you will be awarded a grade of up to 70 on a 100 point scale, depending on how complete and how well you have presented the material.

A grade of 0-85 (on a 100 point scale)

After preparing the above charts and narrative, you can decide to do a somewhat deeper analysis and present your figures for each of the “cards” in the “Budget Hero” game. Instead of a gross figure for Defense, show how you would change spending in each of the 14 cards presented in the game for Defense. You will not have to prepare a chart for each of the cards, but a narrative must explain what you would do with each of the cards. You may have some cards for which you propose no change. That is acceptable. You will have to do the same analysis and narrative for all of the cards for all 9 of the areas. These do not have to be lengthy; however, you must provide an adequate explanation of why you are changing each card.

If you choose to stop at this point after presenting your changes on each of the cards and an explanation of why, you will be awarded a grade of up to 85 on a 100 point scale, depending on how complete and how well you have presented the material.

A grade of 0-100 (on a 100 point scale)

After preparing all of the above, you can decide to go for the gold. To achieve this, you must take two of the nine areas (your choice) plus “taxes” and fully explain the IMPACT your decisions will have for each of the cards you have changed in the two areas plus “taxes”. In a narrative you will be required to provide information on the positives and negatives that will result from your choices. Who will be helped? Who will be harmed? What are the short-term and long-term consequences? What policy changes will have to be made?

You will be awarded a grade of up to 100 on a 100 point scale, depending on how complete and how well you have presented all of the material.

Grading:

Course grades will be determined on the following bases:

  

90-100=A                                           

                        80-89 =B                                             Midterm Examination    25%

                        70-79 =C                                             Final Examination          25%

                        60-69 =D                                             Balancing the Budget    50%

                          0-59 =F                                            

Late Submission of Course Materials:

Late assignments will have their grade lowered one letter for each day or part of a day they are late.  Anything handed in after class on April 26, 2011except the final exam, will be counted as a zero.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES

 

1.  

1. 1. Attend classes regularly. EACH unexcused absence will lower your cumulative grade by two percent (two points on a 100 point scale). There are no excused absences except in extreme cases of illness attested to by a Doctor, a family death, or special educational event approved of by Dr. Brecke ahead of time. You may regain one point for your cumulative grade by handing in a typed summary of the reading for the day(s) you miss. These summaries are due one week after the class is missed. They will not be accepted for credit after that time. If you are missing a lot of classes due to health, consider dropping the course or taking an incomplete for the course

2. Students are responsible for all material covered in class while they are absent.

3. Be prepared for class. This means that you have read the assignment and are prepared to discuss it in class. This course is a combination of lecture and discussion and you are expected to take part in the discussions. Up to as much as 20% of your final grade will be determined by your in-class participation.

4. There will be two examinations including the final. Examinations will be a combination of short answer and long essay. A few days before each of the examinations you will be given a list of terms and concepts for review. No late or early examinations will be given except in extreme cases such as illness attested to by a Doctor, or family deaths. Missing an exam, except in those extreme cases, will result in an “F” for the course.

5. A research assignment is required for this course. Details will be given on a separate handout.

6. You are required to keep abreast of current affairs. It is suggested that you take out a subscription to a daily newspaper and read it. There may be several current events quizzes.

7. Seniors in their last semester need not take the final exam if they have an “A” going into the final exam.

8. Late assignments will have their grade lowered one letter for each day or part of a day they are late. Anything handed in after class on May 3, 2012, except the final exam, will be counted as a zero.

9. Cheating or plagiarism will result in an “F” for the course and a recommendation to the Dean that you be dismissed from Park College.

10. No portable telephones or pagers are allowed in class except for security or emergency medical personnel.

11. If you have any questions or problems come and see me or email me. Emails will be answered during office hours only.

12. Any student with special needs or who has a disability in the classroom environment, please see me immediately after the first class.

13. No assignments will be accepted via email.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

 

  CALENDAR

   

CALENDAR

January

 

17        Intro to course.

19        Intro to American Government

            Ch. 1

24        Constitutional Government

            63-78

26        continued

31        Constitutional History

            Ch. 2

February

2          Federalism

            Ch. 3

7          Public Opinion

            Ch. 6

9          Interest Groups

            Ch. 7

14        Political Parties

            Ch. 8

16        Campaigns and Elections

            Ch. 9

21        Congress

            Ch. 10

23        continued

28        Presidency

            Ch. 11

March

1          continued

6          Bureaucracy

            Ch. 12

8          continued

13-15 Spring Break

20        The Courts

            Ch. 13

22        Review

            Budget Paper Due

27        Midterm Exam

            Bring an unmarked blue book

29        Public Policy

            Ch. 14 to p. 476

April

3          Health Care

            477-481

5          Immigration

            482-484

10        Economic Decision Making

            493-500

12        Foreign Policy

            Ch. 15

17        Continued

19        Joint session with Macroeconomics Class

24        Joint session with Macroeconomics Class

26        Crime

            485-487

May

1          Energy

            487-492

3          Review

10        Final Exam, 10:15-12:15

            Bring unmarked blue book

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty (www.park.edu/current or http://www.park.edu/faculty/).from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 93

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 93

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.

Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 96

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .



Rubric

CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
Synthesis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Artifact demonstrates ability to explain American National Government (ANG) structure and operation based on English political history, colonial experience, and Constitutional Convention events Artifact demonstrates ability to explain ANG structure and operation based on colonial experience and  Constitutional Convention events

 
Artifact demonstrates ability to explain ANG structure and operation based on colonial experience and  Constitutional Convention events

 
Artifact fails to explain any foundational aspects for creation of the ANG 
Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Artifact demonstrates student's ability to identify and explain voting behavior by all demographic groups and how these decisions impact on the creation of policy and administration of government programs.
Artifact demonstrates student's ability to identify and explain voting behavior by all demographic groups and how these decisions impact on the creation of policy and administration of government programs. 
Student demonstrates ability to identify and explain voting behavior by all demographic groups

 
Student demonstrates ability to identify and explain voting behavior by some demographic categories

 
Student does not identify and explain voting behavior by demographic categories. 
Evaluation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Outcomes
2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Student demonstrates ability to explain the influence of third party groups and the media on elections and public policy citing specific current events

 
Student explains influences of third party groups and the media on elections and public policy by referencing textbook examples

 
Student explains the influences of some third party groups and/or media on elections and public policy

 
Student does not explain any influences

 
Terminology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
1, 2, 3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Artifact demonstrates proper use of terminology with no errors Artifact demonstrates proper use of terminology with no more than one error Artifact demonstrates proper use of terminology with two errors

 
Artifact shows three or more errors 
Concepts                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Outcomes
1, 2, 3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Artifact demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the concepts in all the relevant learning objectives

 
Artifact demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the concepts in 3 of the relevant learning Objectives

 
Artifact demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the concepts in 1 or 2 of the relevant learning objectives Artifact does not demonstrate an understanding of concepts in any of the relevant learning objectives

 
Application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Outcomes
1, 2, 3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Artifact demonstrates ability to relate current events to all learning objectives Artifact demonstrates ability to relate current events to 3 learning objectives Artifact demonstrates ability to relate current events to 1 or 2 learning objectives


 
Artifact does not demonstrate any ability to relate current events to any learning objectives 
Whole Artifact                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Outcomes
1, 2, 3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Artifact demonstrates as a whole the ability to analyze ANG and apply all learning outcomes in an integrated and appropriate way

 
Artifact demonstrates as a whole the ability to analyze ANG and apply 3 learning outcomes in an integrated and appropriate way

 
Artifact demonstrates as a whole the ability to analyze ANG and apply 1-2 learning outcomes in an integrated and appropriate way

 
Artifact does not demonstrate the ability to analyze and apply any of the learning outcomes 
Component                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Component demonstrates no errors in analyzing the creation of policy and administration of government programs

 
Component has one or two factual errors Component has three or four factual errors

 
Component does not exhibit the ability to analyze the creation of policy and administration of government programs.

 

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Last Updated:12/7/2011 11:42:21 AM