CJ333 Security Administration

for F1T 2012

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Mission Statement: Park University provides access to a quality higher education experience that prepares a diverse community of learners to think critically, communicate effectively, demonstrate a global perspective and engage in lifelong learning and service to others.

Vision Statement: Park University, a pioneering institution of higher learning since 1875, will provide leadership in quality, innovative education for a diversity of learners who will excel in their professional and personal service to the global community.


CJ 333 Security Administration


F1T 2012 DL


Dr. Kenneth Christopher, D.P.A., C.P.P.


Associate Professor of Criminal Justice


Doctor of Public Administration (Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 1999)
Master of Public Administration (Florida International University, Miami, FL, 1983)
Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice (University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 1976)

Office Location

Park University Home Campus, Parkville, MO, Hawley Hall #310

Office Hours

Monday and Wednesday, 2:45pm-4:45pm

Daytime Phone

Office: 816-584-6597

Other Phone

Mobile: 816-809-6494



Web Page


Semester Dates

August 20 - October 14, 2012

Class Days

Distance Learning

Class Time

Distance Learning



Credit Hours



Effective Security Management, 5th Ed. (2011)
by Charles Sennewald
ISBN 978-0-12-382012-9

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

The following resources are required and available in the online course website:
ARTICLE (Required-Week 1): School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field. By: Fein, Albert H., Carlisle, Cynthia S., Isaacson, Nancy S., Professional School Counseling, 10962409, Apr2008, Vol. 11, Issue 4 (in DOC SHARING)

O.W. Wilson’s Principles of Organization (in DOC SHARING)

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email helpdesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the http://parkonline.org website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.

Course Description:
CJ 333 Security Administration: This intermediate course examines the selection, and organization and administration of contemporary security programs in business, government and industry. Emphasizes both private and government protection of assets, personnel and facilities. Focuses on best practices that security managers can put to immediate use. Provides strategic planning guidance for risk assessment and management, and the coordination of security planning with institutional stakeholders. Prerequisite CJ 233 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:

The instructor's overarching approach to education is to emphasize the broadening of intellect as a strategy for developing problem solving and critical thinking skills.  It is essential to integrate the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed in the classroom into the active lives of students, both as individuals and as members of social groups.  It is not the facts we learn, but how we use them that provides us with the tools needed to better the human condition.

The instructor will use lectures, class discussions, group activities, handouts, supplementary readings, audio-visual aids, examinations, case studies, and other methods to facilitate learning.  Student performance expectations:

  1. The instructor assumes the student has read and understands the syllabus and expects students to ask questions if any aspect of the course requirements is unclear.
  2. Students are expected to demonstrate that they are meeting the course objectives by attending class; actively participating in class discussions, activities, and exercises; timely submitting all written assignments; delivering required oral presentations; and sitting for any scheduled examinations.
  3. Students are assigned readings from the required text(s) and/or supplemental text materials in advance of each class meeting and are expected to be prepared for class.
  4. Students are expected to ask questions if they do not understand something.
The instructor encourages a mutual learning environment, where students can freely raise questions in the search for understanding.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Specify the terminology, facts, concepts, principles, and theories associated with security administration.
  2. Recognize the managerial acts and functions required for asset, personnel, and facility protection.
  3. Interpret institutional stakeholder needs to coordinate appropriate security planning.
  4. Apply creative security solutions to practical organizational problems using frameworks, procedures, and methods from the security discipline.
  5. Formulate strategic plans for conducting security risk assessments, audits, and developing security plans.
  6. Evaluate the effectiveness of security plans using theory-based criteria and performance standards.

Core Assessment:

For CJ 333, the student will research and report on a contemporary security program in business, government, or industry that emphasizes the protection of assets, personnel, and/or facilities. The purpose of this research is to identify best practices in security administration.

To complete this project, students must: 

  1. Identify an actual organizational security program.
  2. Conduct research about the organization and the security program.
  3. Discuss the managerial acts and functions required for asset, personnel, and/or facility protection.
  4. Identify and discuss the role(s) of relevant institutional stakeholders in security planning.
  5. Identify how the organization has applied security solutions to problems using methods from the security discipline.
  6. Critique the organization’s strategic planning and risk assessment practices.
  7. Evaluate the effectiveness of organizational security planning and administration.
  8. Make conclusions and recommendations concerning best practices in security administration. 

The report will provide an integrated and equitable treatment of all issues and contain the following technical components:

  1. A cover or title page
  2. A body of text, 7-8 typed, double-spaced pages (1,750 to 2,000 words) in length
  3. A reference page containing a minimum of 8 course-external resources
  4. Written in APA Style

Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

Overview of Course Learning Activities

Each week, you will have regular learning activities:

Reading - Textbook assignments, and occasional supplementary articles, websites, and reference material.

Lecture - These will be in the form of text, Web links, test quizzes, questions, expanded concept articles, and PowerPoint presentations.

Quizzes – There will be four (4) quizzes covering material in Weeks 1 through 7. Each quiz will cover the required readings up to and including that week. Successive quizzes will only cover material for which you have not already been quizzed on (e.g., Week 1 quiz covers Week 1 material; Week 3 quiz covers Weeks 2 and 3 material, and so on). Quizzes are due no later than midnight, Sunday of each of the appropriate weeks.

Discussion - Respond to EACH of the discussion questions for the week. First responses to the discussions must be posted by midnight Wednesday. At least three (3) meaningful responses to other students must be posted by midnight Sunday.

Journal Article Critical Reviews – Individual reviews due Week 3 and Week 6.

Core Assessment Assignment - Due Week 7

Final Exam – The final exam is proctored, comprehensive for the entire term, and will be taken in Week 8.


Weekly Discussions (8 discussions)

: First, you must respond specifically to EACH of the weekly discussion question(s), using your textbook, class lecture, and supplementary/outside readings for support. Second, you must respond to the responses of your classmates. Remember, the online threaded discussions are public messages and all writings in this area will be viewable by the entire class. Be sure to respond to EACH of the discussion questions for the week (some weeks, there may be 1, 2, or 3 questions presented). Your first response should consist of 100 – 125 words for EACH question, and be posted by midnight Wednesday of each week. Then, go back and review your classmates’’ responses and post at least three (3) meaningful responses (i.e. a minimum of 125 total words) by midnight Sunday. A "meaningful response" is one that goes beyond simply agreeing or disagreeing, i.e., by provoking further analysis, evaluation, and critique of the ideas discussed. Your weekly discussion postings will be assessed using the following rubric:


CJ333 Grading Rubrics (How Assignments will be Assessed)

Weekly Discussion, Quiz, and Proctored Final Exam Grading Rubric

Grading Criteria

Exceeds expectation

Meets expectation

Does not meet expectation

No evidence

Content: 50%


Content is comprehensive, accurate, and persuasive; definitions are clearly stated.

Content is not comprehensive and/or persuasive.

Content is incomplete or omits some requirements stated in the assignment’s criteria.

Did not complete assignment

Major points are stated clearly and are well supported with sourcing.

Major points are addressed, but are not well supported by sourcing.

Major points are not clear, not persuasive, and not sourced.

Research, if necessary, is adequate, timely, relevant, and addresses all of the issues stated in the assignment’s criteria.

Research, if necessary, is inadequate in either relevance, quality of outside sources, and/or timeliness.

No outside sources were used to support major points.

Readability 50%

Organization and structure of the response is clear and easy to follow.

Organization and structure is not easy to follow.

Organization and structure detracts from the writer’s message.

No structure or organization.

Response exceeds the minimum length as described in the assignment’s criteria.

Response is at the minimum length as described in the assignment’s criteria.

Response is below the minimum length as described in the assignment’s criteria.

Paragraph transitions are present and logical, and maintain the flow of thought throughout the paper.

Paragraph transitions are fragmentary and ideas are presented without logical connection.

Paragraph transitions are not obvious.

Conclusion is logical, flows from the body of the response, and does not include new information.

Conclusion is provided but does not flow from the body of the response.

Conclusion is missing.

Citations and reference formatting meet standards for the discipline.

Paper provides citations and references for sources, but they are incorrectly formatted; reference list is provided but has some errors or omissions.

Citations and references are not provided.

Rules of grammar usage and punctuation are followed; spelling and word choices are correct.

Paper contains few grammar, punctuation, spelling, and word choice errors.

Paper contains numerous grammar, punctuation, spelling, and word choice errors.

Language is clear and precise; sentences display consistently strong, varied structure.

Language lacks clarity or includes the use of some jargon or conversational tone.

Language uses jargon or conversational tone.

Journal Article Critical Reviews (2) Each student will critically review TWO articles related to an issue in security administration. Each article will be from a different security publication from the list below:

Homeland Defense Journal
Information Security
Information Systems
Security Intelligence and National Security
International Journal of Conflict Management
International Journal of Information
Security International
Journal of Police Science and Management
International Security
Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
Journal of Information Privacy and Security
Journal of Security Education
Safety Director’s Report
Security and Terrorism Bulletin
Security Director’s Report
Security Studies

Full text copies of articles from the above journals are available through the Park University Library electronic database entitled: International Security and Counter Terrorism Reference Center (Ebsco)

This database is accessible for all students, staff, and faculty through the library's website and by remote access with an OPEN ID and password.



For Library assistance contact:

Park University Library

8700 N.W. River Park Drive
Parkville, MO 64152
Telephone (816) 584-6285
FAX (816) 741-4911
Long Distance Off Campus (800) 270-4347

The articles can be research-based or expository, as long as they are current (published within the last 4 years) and relate to a security administration issue or problem.

Each review is expected to be between 1,000 and 1,250 words typed. As a rule of thumb, the first half of the review should be a summary of the information contained in the article, and the second half should contain your critical analysis and review of the article. Your submission should cover the major theory or thesis, research methodology and population studied (if any), major arguments or points of view, findings or conclusions, and major issues. It should also include a critique of the author’s work and its implications and usefulness for security managers and administrators. APA Style guidelines will be adhered to in all respects.


Journal Article Critical Review Grading Rubric

Your reviews will be assessed on each of the following ten (10) elements, but your review should be a consolidated and integrated product.


Element                                                                                              Points Possible                                            

  • Article is from an approved publication                                          10
  • Relates to security administration issue/problem                          10
  • Length (1,000 – 1,250 words typed)                                               10
  • One half summary/one half analysis/critique                                  10
  • Major theory, thesis, research methodology discussed               10
  • Major arguments/points of view discussed                                    10
  • Findings/conclusions/major issues discussed                              10
  • Implications for security administration discussed                        10
  • Structure/grammar/punctuation/APA Style                                    10

TOTAL POINTS                                                                                      90

In general, each of the above elements will be assessed as: Exceeds Expectations (90 – 100 %), Meets Expectations (75 – 89%), Does Not Meet Expectations (60 -74%), or No Evidence (Below 60%) using the following criteria: Element is comprehensive, accurate, and persuasive; Major points are stated clearly and well-supported; Structural elements are integrated; Writing is clear and easy to follow; Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage and punctuation are followed; APA Style present.
Core Assessment Assignment and Rubric (AS SPECIFIED IN THE SYLLABUS)

Final Exam (Proctored)

The Final Exam will be comprehensive, covering the required textbook, the class lectures, and any supplementary material provided for students during the term. It is to be completed by Midnight, Friday, Week 8.

The exam will consist of EIGHT (8) subjective-type questions (200 points @ 25 points/question).

You will not be able to refer to the course website, course textbook, or any other external materials. 

You will be required to write at least one full paragraph for each question.  A paragraph is defined as containing 100-125 words containing contain complete sentences (e.g., no outlines, bullets, half-sentences, sentence fragments, etc.).  Spelling, grammar, proper sentence structure, and accurate word usage count.  Responses will be assessed using the Weekly Discussion Grading Rubric used during the course.

Your grade will be based on whether you answer all parts of the question, incorporating references from your course readings and study.  Complete answers will respond to any and all sub-questions contained in the broader question, will refer to the course readings and class material, and provide critical analyses of the issues addressed.  


Course Assignments Schedule and Grade Distribution
Total Points
Total %
Weekly Discussions (8) ......................................................... --First responses to the discussions must be posted by midnight Wednesday EACH Week. At least three meaningful responses to other students must be posted to your classmates’ postings by midnight Sunday.
Quizzes (4) ............................................................................. --Completed by Midnight, Sunday, Weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7.
Journal Article Critical Reviews (2) ...................................... --Individual critical article reviews due by Midnight, Sunday, Weeks 3 and 6.
Core Assessment Assignment ............................................. --Completed by Midnight, Sunday, Week 7.
Final Exam (Proctored) ......................................................... --Completed by Midnight, Friday, Week 8.

Grading Plan

Letter Grade Policy


Number of Points



900 – 1,000



800 - 899



700 - 799



600 - 699



599 or below

Below 59.9

Late Submission of Course Materials:

Late Submission of Course Materials

  • Late submissions will be downgraded by one whole letter grade (e.g., A to B, B to C, etc.) for each CALENDAR DAY that the assignment is late.
  • Course assignments (weekly discussions, projects, essays, etc.) not submitted within THREE (3) CALENDAR DAYS OF THE DUE DATE WILL BE GRADED AS AN "F" (zero points). No assignment will be accepted for grading if MORE THAN 3 DAYS LATE. No assignment will be accepted, reviewed, or graded AFTER the last scheduled date of the course.

  • MAKEUP POLICY – FINAL PROCTORED EXAMINATIONS ONLY:  Students who fail to complete a scheduled final proctored examinations will receive a grade of 0 (F) for the assessment item, and will fail the course. Students experiencing some type of EMERGENCY (e.g., personal illness, car accident, family issue, etc.), which will impact their ability to complete a scheduled final proctored examination must personally contact the instructor as soon as possible BEFORE the scheduled examination, or as soon as practicable.  Makeups for final examinations MAY be offered on a case-by-case basis, subject to written documentation from the student substantiating the EMERGENCY (e.g., medical note, police report, etc.) and notice from the student. THE INSTRUCTOR HAS NO OBLIGATION TO OFFER A MAKEUP EXAM. 
  • Classroom Rules of Conduct:

    • A class week is defined as the period of time between Monday 12:01am and Sunday at 11:59 pm. All times are CENTRAL time and assignments are due based on CENTRAL time. The first week begins the first day of the term/semester. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed and successfully submitted by the posted due date.
    • Create a back up file of every piece of work you submit for grading. This will ensure that a computer glitch or a glitch in cyberspace won't erase your efforts.

    • General email: Students should use email for private messages to the instructor and other students. When sending email other than assignments, please identify yourself fully by name and class in all email sent to your instructor and/or other members of our class.
    • Online threaded discussions are public messages and all writings in this area will be viewable by the entire class or assigned group members.
    • Online Instructor Response Policy:  Online Instructors will check email frequently and will respond to course-related questions within 24-48 hours.
    • Make it a habit to check the ANNOUNCEMENTS on the COURSE HOME page every time you log on. You may find the answers to general course "housekeeping" questions (i.e. how do I submit assignment 3?).  If you don't see your question there, then please contact your instructor.
    • If you experience computer difficulties (need help downloading a browser or plug-in, you need help logging into the course, or if you experience any errors or problems while in your Online course), click on the  button in your Online Classroom, then click on the helpdesk menu item, and then fill out the form or call the helpdesk for assistance.
    • If a technical issue is preventing you from submitting or completing any coursework, contact your instructor immediately. Students must report all technical problems to the Help Desk and retain/provide documentation to the instructor with any requests for adjustments to assignment submissions.

    Changes or Modifications

    The instructor reserves the right to modify the course content and schedule without prior notice and in accordance with the requirements of the course. 

    Contacting the Instructor

    The instructor is available and willing to assist students.  Please feel free to contact the instructor at any time if there are questions or need for assistance.  Appointments to meet or discuss outside of class can be arranged by contacting the instructor by telephone, e-mail, or personal communication.  When calling by telephone, if it is necessary to leave a voice-mail message, please indicate a preferred time of day for a response.

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    If you have ANY accessibility or issue of disability, please SELECT the Help and Resources link on the Course Home Menu. That takes you to the Online Student Help and Resource Page.

    On that page, there is a "menu" on the left side of the page. About half way down you will find a link to "Accessibility and ADA". SELECT that link and you will have access to ALL of the ADA and Accessibility information at Park University.

    Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

    Week 1: Management, Organizational Structure, and Security's Role (Aug 20-26, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 1, 2, 3
    • Read Article: School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field by Albert Fein, Cynthia Carlisle, and Nancy Isaacson
    • Read (DOC SHARING): Wilson's Prinicples of Organization
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Quiz

    Week 2: Affecting Organizational Outcomes Through Security Leadership and Supervision (Aug 27-Sep 2, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 4, 5, 6
    • Read: Article-A Healthy Dose of Security, by Ann Longmore-Etheridge
    • View: PowerPoint Slides: Strategies for Security Administration
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions

    Week 3: Personnel Management in Security Administration (Sep 3-9, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Quiz: Weeks 2 and 3
    • Journal Article Critical Review #1 Due

    Week 4: Motivation and Communication (Sep 10-16, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14
    • Weekly Discussion: 3 Questions
    • Practice Activity
    • Practice Quiz
    Week 5: Planning and Programming (Sep 17-23, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 15 and 16
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Quiz: Weeks 4 and 5
    • Practice Activity
    Week 6: Risk, Security Surveys, Administration, and Procedures (Sep 24-30, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 17, 18, 19, 20
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Journal Article Critical Review #2 Due
    • Practice Activity
    Week 7: Computers and Statistics (Oct 1-7, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 21 and 22
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Core Assessment Assignment Due
    Week 8: Public Relations (Oct 8-14, 2012)
    • Read: Sennewald, Chapters 23, 24, 25, 26
    • Weekly Discussion: 2 Questions
    • Proctored Final Exam



    Academic Honesty:
    Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty (www.park.edu/current or http://www.park.edu/faculty/).from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95-96

    Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95

    Attendance Policy:
    Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

    1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
    2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
    3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
    4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
    5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
    6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
    ONLINE NOTE: Students must participate in an academically related activity on a weekly basis in order to be marked present in an online class. Examples of academically-related activities include but are not limited to: contributing to an online discussion, completing a quiz or exam, completing an assignment, initiating contact with a faculty member to ask a course related question, or using any of the learning management system tools.

    Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 98

    Disability Guidelines:
    Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

    Additional Information:


    CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
    The report demonstrates a thorough appraisal of the researched information.  The essay is presented as a congruous and thoughtful exposition of ideas. The report demonstrates a satisfactory appraisal of the researched information.  The report is presented as a thoughtful exposition of ideas. The report demonstrates a minimal appraisal of the researched information.  The report is presented as a disparate exposition of ideas. The report demonstrates no appraisal of the researched information.  The report is presented as an incongruous exposition of ideas. 
    The report is a consolidated integration of the fundamental principles of security administration. Extends research well beyond minimum requirements. The report presents a basic compilation of fundamental principles of security administration, but integration of research themes is weak. The report responds to some individual issues of security administration, but with insufficient consolidation of ideas. No evidence of combining researched material into a consistent whole. 
    Report completely examines the fundamental principles of security administration.  It analyzes key elements using 8 or more course-external sources. Report examines the fundamental principles of security administration, but may miss a few points.  It analyzes key elements using 6-7 course-external sources. Report fails to satisfactorily examine the fundamental principles of security administration. It analyzes key elements using 1-5 course-external sources. Report fails to examine the fundamental principles of security administration. It uses no course-external sources. 
    The report shows multiple instances and exceptional understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The report shows sufficient and satisfactory use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The report shows minimal use of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes throughout. The report fails to demonstrate an understanding of terminology and concepts specific to the course core learning outcomes. 
    Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Report conveys complete and exceptional information on the fundamental principles of security administration. Report conveys sufficient information on the fundamental principles of security administration. Report conveys minimal information on the fundamental principles of security administration. Report conveys no information on the fundamental principles of security administration. 
    Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Report contains all required technical components: 1,750-2000 words in length (excluding required cover and reference pages), typed, double-spaced.   Written in APA Style.  Contains fewer than five grammatical or spelling errors. Report contains most required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors but errors do not detract from understanding. Written in APA or MLA Style, but may have a few formatting errors. Report contains few required technical components.  Contains more than five grammatical or spelling errors that detract from understanding. APA or MLA Style usage is barely evident. Report contains no required technical components. There are so many errors in the APA or MLA writing convention, in the paper presentation, or in grammar and/or spelling that it is difficult to read. 


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    Last Updated:7/23/2012 9:40:06 AM