SO315 Minority Group Relations

for S1T 2013

Printer Friendly

Mission Statement: Park University provides access to a quality higher education experience that prepares a diverse community of learners to think critically, communicate effectively, demonstrate a global perspective and engage in lifelong learning and service to others.

Vision Statement: Park University, a pioneering institution of higher learning since 1875, will provide leadership in quality, innovative education for a diversity of learners who will excel in their professional and personal service to the global community.


SO 315 Minority Group Relations


S1T 2013 DL


Cummins, Kim D.


Senior Instructor/Adjunct Faculty


M.A. Sociology University of Central Missouri 1980
B.S. Criminal Justice University of Central Missouri 1978

Office Location


Office Hours

Email is checked at least once every 24 hours; Virtual Office is checked at least once every 48 hours. I am available for phone calls on Monday and Sunday from 2 - 8 pm and Wednesday 4-8 pm. See Virtual Office for more information.

Daytime Phone

618-398-2173 (home)

Other Phone

618-541-9438 (cell)


Semester Dates

14 January - 10 March

Class Days


Class Time



SO141 Recommended

Credit Hours


Parillo, V. N. (2011).  Strangers to These Shores: Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States, 10th. ed. NY: Allyn & Bacon.
ISBN-10: 0-205-79074-7
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-79074-6

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Textbooks can be purchased through the Parkville Bookstore

Additional Resources:

The Basics of APA StyleTutorial located on the web site of the American Psychological Association covers the basics of using APA format.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. ISBN 1-4338-0559-6

Dolgon., C. (2005). The end of the Hamptons. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 13: 0-8147-1958-9




McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.

Course Description:
SO315 (HS315) Minority Group Relations (LL): An examination of the patterns and causes of prejudice and discrimination. Surveys the history and current status of groups in American society which have been subjected to discrimination based on race, ethnicity, sex or religion. 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:

My educational philosophy is one that reflects the facilitation of learning through learner interaction with course content, the facilitator, and other online learners. As a learner in my online classroom, you will be encouraged to explore new ideas and viewpoints, reason critically and objectively, apply, analyze, and synthesize what you have learned, and reflect on your learning throughout the course.

Class assignments are structured to provide a learning experience that is relevant and interesting. Topics are thought-provoking, and I encourage you to share you own experiences and points of view while at the same time respecting and valuing the experiences and viewpoints of others. I ask you to think beyond simple memorization of material to an application of what you are learning to you own experiences and to new or different contexts. You will be asked to apply theory and to compare/contrast similarities and differences individuals and group dimensions. The Core Assessment Essay is a measure of how well you are able to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate the concepts and theories presented in this course with research information drawn from peer-reviewed academic sources.

The lessons and experiences from my own life form the basis of everything I do in the online classroom. I try to create a learning environment that is both challenging and encouraging. I believe my role is to guide or facilitate learning rather than to impart information. To that end, I also believe the corresponding role of the student is to actively participate in this course, share information and ideas with other learners, and to accept responsibility for his/her own learning. If you accept this challenge, you will find this course invaluable.

Learning Outcomes:
  Core Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain how majority (dominant) and minority (subordinate) groups are defined and how those definitions are commonly justified, internalized by members of both, and manipulated for relative advantage.
  2. Know the historical development, current importance, and likely future developments in socially significant minorities, such as those based on “race” and ethnicity, history and geography, culture and religion, gender or sex, privilege, birth, and so forth; and critically assess how those definitions are created and applied.
  3. Know the social history of American migration patterns and how they were shaped by power, status, and access to other resources; and compare and contrast this history with those of other areas and times.
  4. Examine the patterns and causes of prejudice and discrimination, and interpret the consequences for individuals and societies.
  5. Explain how social institutions, such as economic, political, educational, and cultural systems, are created or adapted to perpetuate disadvantage among minority group members.
  6. Evaluate the history and current status of groups in American society that have been subjected to systematic discrimination, including African Americans, Native Americans, and other specific ethnic and religious groups.
  7. Explore, apply, and evaluate common responses by minority groups to discrimination, including assimilation, accommodation, separatism, and radicalism.
  8. Analyze and evaluate current issues in minority group relations; and apply your theoretical and social historical knowledge to specific minority group struggles in the present day, and to extrapolate their likely trajectories.

Core Assessment:


Core Assessment (New for July, 2006)



The Core Assessment assignment for this class will be a major essay that integrates, analyzes, applies, and critiques several sociological concepts and research findings from this course individually, together, and with additional sources from your own literature review and archival study.

You must incorporate the findings from at least five outside sources of original academic research in this essay.  You may also include additional sources for examples or background information, but only reputable, peer-reviewed academic sources will count toward the reference requirements of your essays.  This means that magazines, newspapers, professional periodicals, or internet sources are only appropriate for examples and illustrations in this project — if you have any questions as to whether a specific source is acceptable for your essay, you should ask your instructor rather than guess.  Also, focus on articles or books presenting original research or theories, not on those reviewing others' works or editorializing about opposing approaches.  Reference works, textbooks, and literature reviews are all excellent places to begin your search, but you must find and read the original in order to develop your own reaction.  Ask your instructor for source approval if in doubt.

You should also consider incorporating relevant and reputable statistical and other social scientific data collected by researchers, governments, and other agencies and organizations.  A wealth of such archived data is publicly accessible through the Internet, and their use can help you better understand your issue and develop a stronger analysis and critique. Again, if in doubt, ask your instructor for approval of your data source.

If you do not properly cite those external sources that contributed to your work, then you are guilty of plagiarism.  This will not be tolerated and may result in immediate and serious academic penalties.  If you have any questions as to when and how to use citations and references in you essays, please contact your instructor.  Your final essay will also be formatted according to the relevant portions of the American Psychological Association Style Guide.  The main text of your essay will consist of no more than 3,500 words (or about fifteen pages).  While it possible to construct a successful essay in fewer words, this assignment is comprehensive and detailed enough that most students will find it a challenge to successfully address all of its points in the allotted space.  Begin work on your essay early and leave plenty of time for revision to assure the best possible grade.



            Select one identity group that is now or has historically been a minority or subordinated group in the United States.  Your group may be a “minority” based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual identity or preference, or some other characteristic or combination of characteristics (but you must receive your instructor's permission before beginning your project).

Briefly summarize the history of that group in this country, and the dominant group's response to their presence.  Compare and contrast that group's characteristics and sense of identity with those ascribed to them by the mainstream.  Describe the group's primary strategy or strategies for carving their niche in American society (i.e., assimilation, accommodation, separatism, or radicalism), and the dominant group's responses to those strategies.  Discuss the degree to which the minority group has (and had) a cohesive identity.  Analyze how and why the subordinated and dominant groups adopted these particular strategies.  What inaccurate stereotypes does the dominant group tend to have about the minority, and vice versa?  Use the conceptual and theoretical tools of the course and your outside sources to clarify and enrich your analysis.

Discuss and evaluate the personal and group consequences of this minority status for both the subordinated and dominant groups.  Discuss specific types of prejudice and discrimination directed toward the minority group.  Examine and evaluate the minority group's strategy for advancing within the larger society's opportunity structure.  Evaluate the relative success of these strategies, compare and contrast them with other appropriate groups, and argue whether another approach might be more successful, especially given the possible differences in culture, ethics, and goals between the minority and majority groups.  Justify and support your conclusions.  Explain how specific social scientific theories and research helps you to draw these conclusions.  Why?

Now that you have a clearer and more defensible understanding of the evidence and the mechanisms at work, discuss the prospects for this group over the next two decades.  Defend and justify your conclusions.  What shared strategies and individual decisions would help guide this group in the most generally useful and beneficial direction?  Defend and justify your conclusions.


Link to Class Rubric

Class Assessment:

Reading Assignments

Students are expected to read the assigned chapters in the textbook, posted lectures and any online articles displayed that week. The online discussions and activities, weekly quizzes, journal Assignments, group project, core assessment essay, and Final Exam assume you have read the assigned readings.

Weekly Discussion and Peer Responses

Initial Discussion Responses: There is a Discussion link in each of the Weekly Menus.  You will need to make one (1) initial discussion response to one (1) of the questions posted in either of the discussion topic forums each week. Post a response of at least 200 words in one of the weekly discussion threads (A or B).  The post should incorporate and refer to concepts/ideas found in your weekly readings (text, online lecture, or assigned online reading). You must use APA citation format to cite the information you incorporate into your response that comes from your sources. If you are not familiar with APA format or need a refresher, consult the APA web site Basics of APA  tutorial This will give you basic guidance for citing in this format. NOTE: Initial Discussion Responses should be completed by Thursday Midnight CT in order to receive full credit and give your classmates the opportunity to respond to your posting.

Peer Responses: Post two (2) Peer Responses to classmate's postings. You must post one in each discussion forum (A and B) to receive full credit. Each peer response should be approximately 100 words but quality is desired over quantity. Your peer responses need to go beyond agreement with your classmate. Each peer response should contain either a personal application/example that relates to the topic or an application/example taken from current events in the news or your community. Your peer response should attempt to add to and advance the discussion and should not be just a restatement of what someone else has said. Specific examples and applications receive more credit than generalized/vague statements.  You are not required to reference the text or other readings or to use APA format in your peer responses, but you are encouraged to do so. NOTE: Weekly Peer Responses must be completed by Sunday Midnight CT. Discussion threads close each week at that time. Late discussion is not accepted. The one exception to this is if student enrolls after the term has begun.

Peer Responses can be done at any time during the week before the Sunday midnight deadline. Detailed information on the requirements for your Discussion Response and your two Peer Responses are located in Course Guidelines. Your Discussion Response and Peer Responses will be graded according to the Weekly Discussion Rubric. Successful completion of Weekly Discussion and Peer Responses is worth 25 points or 25 x 8 Weeks = 200 total points possible for the term.

Weekly 1 Activity

Week 1 Activity is a combination introduction/icebreaker in which you introduce yourself to your instructor and fellow classmates. The activity is a non-graded activity.

Group Project (Weeks 2-6)

A Problem Based Learning group project will be completed during weeks 2-6. You will be divided into small groups ( 5-7) for this project unless otherwise instructed. Each group will simulate a task force charged with solving a problem of racial/ethnic conflict in the Hamptons on New York’s Long Island. This is an actual conflict, and you will use actual information about the conflict as well as the concepts and theories you learn in the course to come up with a plan for dealing with this conflict. The project with associated activities is worth 140 points. Weekly participation is worth 60 points. The submitted task force report is worth 60 points. A peer review and reflection on the project are worth another 20 points. If you have an aversion to group projects, then this may not be the course for you. If you choose to take this course, then I expect your cooperation in participating in this project. Your group members will need to depend on you. Because of that, I reserve the right to prorate any individual's group grade based on their weekly participation input into the final report. That means if you are not an active participant in the weekly group work each week of the project, your group grade will also be reduced accordingly.

Weekly Journal Assignments (Weeks 1-8)

The purpose of the weekly journal assignment is personal reflection and application of the weekly material. These weekly entries give you the opportunity to integrate your ideas with some of the content needed for your Core Assessment Essay. In your essay, you will be asked to write about how your group identity has affected your individual identity and life chances (probabilities of benefiting from the opportunities our society offers). You will want to consider and write about ways in which weekly concepts and issues are relevant to you personally and also think about how you might integrate this information into your paper. Journal entries for weeks 1-6 will focus on these objectives. Each journal entry must include application of at least two course concepts and one theory or theoretical perspective in explaining how group identity has affected your individual identity. Your entry for week 7 will reflect on your experiences in writing your essay, and your entry for week 8 will reflect your overall experience in the course. The successful completion of each Weekly Journal Assignment is worth 15 points or 15 x 8 Weeks = 120 total points possible for the term.

Weekly Quizzes (Weeks 1-7)

Each week includes a quiz over the material presented that week. Quizzes consist of 20 objective questions worth 1 point each. There are 7 quizzes worth 20 points or 20 x 7 weeks = 140 total points possible for the term. Quizzes may be taken more than once. There is no quiz in week 8 due to the final exam.

Core Assessment Essay (Due Week 7)

This is the major paper you will write in this course. A core assessment means that the paper is designed to measure your mastery of at least 3/4 of the core learning outcomes. It is so important that it has its own content menu item in Course Home. Detailed instructions for writing this paper are located below and in the Course Home navigation menu under Core Assessment. Please review the instructions for writing this paper carefully. Your weekly journal assignments have been structured around what you will be writing in this essay. If you do a good job on those and keep up with your journal entries, you should have a solid basis for writing your core assessment essay. The essay is worth 200 points and is due at the end of Week 7.

General Guidelines for Core Assessment

Topic Focus: Sociology makes us aware of the larger social and historical forces that can impact our individual lives. What we experience in different social settings with others may be traced back to larger events, established patterns of interaction, and changes in the social structure. We can exercise our “sociological imagination” in order to understand what type of impact these larger social processes have on our individual lives. The core assessment for this course is a major essay in which you will write about how you believe your individual identity and opportunities or life chances have been shaped by your group identity (racial, ethnic, gender, religious, or sexual preference) and the established patterns of majority-minority relations in this society. You will incorporate course materials, concepts, theories, and models from this course, sources of original peer reviewed research, and demographic data to describe, explain, and analyze the processes that have shaped your group and individual identity and current status. You will also critique and evaluate the conclusions reached by theorists and authors regarding how patterns and processes shape minority-majority relations by contrasting your personal experience and evaluating both against findings from the peer-reviewed research and demographic data you locate.

While it is preferable to do this paper based on your racial/ethnic identity, you may elect to write your paper based on another aspect of your identity such as gender, religion, or sexual preference. The group identity you choose should be applicable to you personally. You may also choose to combine two or more of the dimensions of personal identity, perhaps noting which dimensions are more important in terms of your individual identity. For example, an African American female who is a lesbian may choose to write about how each of these various dimensions has impacted her personal identity and life chances in society, perhaps noting which she believes has had the most impact. This may make the paper a little more challenging. You are encouraged to consult your instructor for guidance.

Resources for Content and Analysis

In writing your paper, you will integrate selected course materials from your assigned readings, concepts, theory, typologies, and models from the course, demographic data, and at least five outside sources of original academic research from peer-reviewed journals. You must incorporate these sources of information and analysis into your paper. Five is the minimum number of peer-reviewed articles you need to meet expectations. If you want to “exceed expectations,” you will need to include more than that. Only reputable, peer-reviewed academic sources will count toward the reference requirements of your paper. You can and should draw on what you have learned about locating, evaluating, and integrating such sources with course material from your weekly library research/writing activities and assignments. Links to appropriate sources for statistical and demographic data are provided in your list of web resources. You may also include interviews with relatives and additional information from newspapers, magazines such as Newsweek, news organizations such as CNN, and other well-selected Internet sources to supplement your analysis, but these should only be used for illustration and background information. They should not be used to support or substantiate your analysis and evaluation of theory or course materials. You must use peer-reviewed academic sources (academic research journals or books that reflect original work) or demographic data for that. If you have questions about a source or how to use it in your paper, contact your instructor for guidance.

Citation and Formatting Guidelines

Length of Paper: Your paper should be approximately 2000 - 2500 words excluding title page and references. It should be double spaced, 12-point font (Times Roman or Courier) with 1-inch margins. Do not exceed 3000 words.

APA Style Requirement: You are required to use the APA style format for this paper, as in all written work in this course. Your paper should include a title page, an abstract, and a list of references. While information on APA style format has been made available to you, you may also want to obtain a copy of the fifth edition of the APA Publication Manual for additional guidance.

Citation Requirement: You are required to cite all of the sources used in your paper by using citations within the text as well as providing a list of references. If you do not properly cite your reference sources, then you are guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and may result in immediate and serious academic penalties. Given that, it is imperative that you follow the rules for citing your sources, especially those that pertain to in-text citations. If you quote directly, paraphrase, or summarize any information that comes from a reference source and do not note this appropriately in the text of your paper, you are guilty of plagiarism and will suffer the consequences. Citing your sources in a list at the end of your paper is necessary, but it is not sufficient to avoid charges of plagiarism. Any direct quotes, paraphrases, factual statements, or ideas used from your sources should be so noted in the text of your paper at the places where they appear and properly cited using parenthetical in-text citation in the APA format.

Your work must be your own. Information about plagiarism and how to avoid it may be found on the Park Academic Support Center’s website at

Core Assessment Instructions: Basic Organization and Content Guidelines


Your paper should include an introduction that contains your thesis statement (a statement that indicates the overall point of focus for your paper) and a summary of the major points you intend to cover in your paper to support your thesis.

Part I Relative Importance of Group Identity to Personal Identity

How does your group identity shape your personal identity? Many things influence our personal identity—ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, gender, religion and even our physical capabilities. These are also things that form the basis of minority or majority status in society. Individuals share in a group identity, and the extent to which they do so varies according to the individual. Guidelines for writing this section:

  • Define one or more aspects of group identity that are part of your individual identity and indicate whether or not you feel your group identity represents a minority or majority status and why.
  • Differentiate your group identity from other group identities in terms of symbolic and/or cultural markers. What cultural or symbolic markers differentiate your group identity from that of other group identities?
  • Explain the meaning group identity has for you and how it forms a part of your individual identity. To what extent is it significant for you? How do you feel you compare to other individuals within this group in terms of how you identify with it?
  • Indicate what factors in your personal experience have played a role in the extent to which you identify with this group. How have your experiences with other contrasting groups shaped your own identity?
  • Indicate how you perceive your group identity as shaping your daily experience in this society and interaction with those of other groups.

Consider the reasons people identify themselves by race, ethnicity, or some other basis for group belonging as well as the meanings of categories and terms people use to identify themselves and others. Consider how minority and majority groups are defined and the consequences of those definitions, including such things as prejudice, discrimination, marginality, etc. What concepts, theories, and findings from research can you use to describe, explain, and support the points you make in this section? If you are part of the majority, you may not feel your race or ethnicity is a significant factor in your personal identity. You would want to explain why you believe it is not significant or why you feel that way, using what you have learned in the course and from your outside research to support your analysis.

Part II Historical Context and Impact

Link your family history and personal experiences with larger historical and social structural forces. Research and discuss the history of your group in American society and how its status may have changed over time, comparing/contrasting it with your individual family history. There will be some information available in your text, but you may want to look for additional background information from outside sources. Research your family history to the extent that you are able and compare/contrast this history with the information you located on your identity group. If you are not able to gather much information about your ancestors, that's fine. Just focus more on what you know about the history of your identity group and do the best you can. Guidelines for writing this section:

  • Indicate how your identity group became a part of this society. What is the history of your identity group as indicated by your course materials and outside research?
  • Indicate how that history compares to your particular familial history. Are there similarities and differences? What are they? How would you explain them? What historical events have shaped or might have shaped your group’s and your family’s circumstances?
  • Indicate how your identity group may have changed over time. What factors led to those changes? Is your group identity different than it was for your parents, their parents or earlier ancestors?
  • Indicate whether or not life is different for you today than it was for your ancestors. You may want to interview older family members to find out what things were like for them as a member of this group and how they felt their group identity influenced their lives. If older relatives are not available, you might consider other older members of your identity group that you know.
  • Interpret the underlying processes that shaped the status and experiences of your identity group and that of your ancestors, especially any strategies your group may have used to carve its niche in American society. Use course concepts and theory relevant to your group as well as findings from your outside research for your interpretation. Try to see the links between the experiences of the larger group and your personal life or to see areas where these may or may not match up.
  • Explain how you feel your personal experience compares with your group as a whole and with what social theorists have said about the overall experience of your group in American society. Indicate similarities and differences and try to explain them using concepts and theories from the course. To what extent did your group have a cohesive identity? Does your group have a cohesive identity today? Why or why not?

In writing this section, consider the ways in which majority and minority status is created and maintained and the consequences for both. Think about how you might use theories of ethnic stratification, theories of assimilation, and minority coping strategies (accommodation, separatism, radicalism) to explain and analyze your group’s experience and your family’s experience. You will also want to critique and evaluate those theories against your own personal experiences and the findings from your outside research. Are there areas of agreement or disagreement? What do you feel are the strengths and the weaknesses of some of these models or theories and how would you justify your conclusions?

Part III Impact on Life Chances and the Future

In this section, you will write about how and to what extent you believe your group identity has affected your life chances (your opportunities to benefit from such things as a good education, job, home, and/or good health) and how you see the future in terms of opportunities for your group and yourself:

  • Indicate how your group identity provides you with either advantages or disadvantages. Perhaps you believe it does both or neither. Compare your identity group to that of other groups in terms of life chances.
  • Discuss the extent of acculturation and assimilation of your group and whether or not you perceive that as affecting your current status and life chances.
  • Examine and evaluate your identity group’s strategy or strategies for advancing within the larger opportunity structure (those things you covered in Part II). Evaluate the relative success of these strategies and whether or not you feel they have played a role in your current life chances. Have you followed the same strategies or different ones? Are there strategies that you, as an individual of the group, believe would better serve your group? What are they, and why do you think they would be more effective?
  • Discuss the future of your identity group in terms of the prospects for your group over the next two decades based on current trends and demographic data available. What larger historical forces do you see as shaping the future for your identity group and for yourself? What do you think the future holds for your identity group and for yourself, and what are the things that support your conclusions?
  • In writing this section, continue to consider the impact larger historical forces and established patterns in the social institutions of society might have on your identity group and you personally. What types of things are currently happening in the areas of education, politics, the economy, the family, the criminal justice system, etc., that may impact the present opportunities and future opportunities of your identity group? How do you see these as applying to yourself as a member of this group?


In your conclusion, discuss what you feel your group/personal experience has to say about the nature of minority-majority relations in the US. Draw some conclusions about what you have learned overall from taking this course and writing this paper.

If you have questions regarding any aspect of the Core Assessment Essay, please post them in Instructor's Office where the instructor can answer them for the benefit of everyone.

Final Proctored Exam (Week 8)

A proctored examination will be taken in a proctored testing environment during the 8th week at one of the Park University sites around the country or at an alternative location. For proctored examinations, photo identification is required at the time of the test. Guidelines for selecting an acceptable proctor can be found on the Park University Web Site. Acceptable alternate proctoring cites are limited to the following locations: college or university, public library, US embassy, US military bases. Approved proctors may include accredited college or university faculty/testing center administrators, certified librarians, US embassy officials, military testing control officer/unit education officer. Excluded from the list of approved proctors shall be family members, neighbors, friends, co-workers and/or supervisors, K- 12 educators or K-12 librarians, clergy, adjunct faculty members . This includes anyone who works within the same company or university. For military personnel in remote areas, you MUST have a commissioned officer proctor your exam. Your instructor makes the final determination as to whether or not your choice of proctor is acceptable. The final exam for this course will be a closed book, closed note, comprehensive exam of 50 multiple choice questions drawn from the pools of questions created for the weekly quizzes. Each question is worth 4 points for a possible 200 points or 20% of your grade. If necessary, the instructor reserves the right to curve final exam scores based on the performance of the class as a whole. No one will be allowed to pass the course without taking the final proctored exam. The final exam is to be scheduled during the 8th week of the course. Make sure that you schedule your final exam during the designated dates. If you are a special needs student and require special accommodations for your Final Exam, please notify the proctor/campus center at the time you fill out your proctor form.

Securing a Proctor:
It will be the responsibility of the student to arrange for a proctor by Friday of Week 6. Approval of proctors is at the discretion of the online instructor. If you live within 1 hour of a Park University campus site, you will be expected to arrange for a proctor there and should make every effort to take your exam there. If you are not close enough to a Park University campus site, you will need to arrange for an approved proctor outside of Park University. A proctor request form will be made available to you during the first or second week of the term. Proctors at our campus sites are automatically approved. For those requesting non-Park proctors, you will need to fill out and submit the online form, and it will come to me for approval. I may have questions regarding your proctor and may require you to provide additional information about your proctor before I approve your request. Please co-operate in this matter. I do not have to approve any proctor I feel could possibly compromise the testing environment. Failure to take a final proctored exam (or submit your final project for some online graduate courses) will result in an automatic "F" grade for the course. Some graduate online courses may not require a proctored Final Examination.


Grading Criteria for Course Requirements:


Due Date

% of Grade

Weekly Discussion, Online Activities, Journal Assignment, and Weekly Quizzes

Weekly Sunday Midnight CT


Group Project

Sunday Midnight CT End of Week 5


Core Assessment Essay

Sunday Midnight CT End of Week 7


Final Exam

Week Eight


Course Grading Scale:

Grade of A Assigned

90- 100 %

900-1000 Total Points

Grade of B Assigned

80 - 89%

800 - 899 Total Points

Grade of C Assigned

70 - 79%

700 - 799 Total Points

Grade of D Assigned

60 - 69%

600 - 699 Total Points

Grade of F Assigned

Below 60%

Below 600 Total Points

Late Submission of Course Materials:

Discussion for the week must be completed by Sunday Midnight CT each week. If you do not complete the required discussion assignments by the midnight deadline in the week they are due, you miss your chance for class discussion in that week. No Discussion Response or Peer Response will be accepted for credit after Sunday midnight CT of the week in which the discussion is due. There are no exceptions, regardless of the reason you could not complete the assignment. You cannot make these up. They must be completed and submitted within the week they are due. This also applies to work on the group project. You must complete your portion of the group project within the week the project is due. Please do not ask to be an exception as there are none. You need a "Plan B" as explained below.

Special Circumstances

Under special circumstances (such as unexpected deployment), a student may be allowed to make up the points from missed discussion by completing an alternate journal assignment as determined by the instructor. Special circumstances must be documented (ie., a copy of deployment orders). Late online journal assignments may be considered for late credit for the following reasons: death in the family, sickness or medical emergency in immediate family or unexpected deployment. You must notify me prior to the due date of a problem with completing the assignment and may be asked to provide documentation, depending on the circumstances. I will not accept the late assignment if you have not notified me prior to the due date and supplied documentation. Upon notification, I reserve the right to decide whether or not I feel your reason falls within these stated guidelines. Any late journal assignment or activity will receive an automatic 20% deduction, regardless of the reason it is late.

Makeup of weekly quizzes is at the discretion of the instructor. The same rules apply to these as to late weekly journal assignments. You must notify the instructor prior to the due date of a problem with completing the quiz. Since quizzs are set for multiple submissions and review dates are set for the Monday following the week in which the quiz is taken, if you have to take a makeup quiz, the quiz will have to be reset, and you will only be able to enter the quiz one time. You must take it and submit it in one sitting.

Late journal assignments, weekly activities, or makeup quizzes must be completed by the end of the week following the one in which they are due. No make up of weekly assignments will be accepted after Sunday of Week 7. A late core assessment must be submitted by Friday midnight of Week 8 and must have prior approval from me.  Under no circumstances will I accept an assignment posted after term end (Sunday midnight Week 8). That includes a final exam unless you have made arrangements with me beforehand. My goal in establishing these policies is to create an online environment that is fair to me and to those who have made the effort to submit assignments on time. If you think that your present work schedule, family responsibilities, vacation plans, or health will prevent you from regular participation in the classroom and/or from timely completion of the assignments, you may want to consider whether or not this is the best time to take this course. Balancing work, family, school, and other responsibilities sometimes requires us to set priorities and make sacrifices. If an emergency situation or an unexpected hardship occurs during the term, contact me immediately.

Taking classes online is convenient, but it requires good time management skills and the foresight to plan ahead. Things can happen during a term that might prevent you from getting online and completing your work. In a traditional classroom setting, you need to depend on some type of transportation to get you to class, usually a car. If your car breaks down for some reason, you need a "Plan B" for getting to class. One of the nice things about taking classes online is that you do not need to get in your car and drive to class, but you still need to get to class. Just as in the traditional setting, problems may occur with your means of getting to class. This might be trouble with your computer, your ISP, cable modem or phone line. It might be a power outage that lasts for some length of time. I have experienced power outages of up to five days at a time while teaching an online course. I could not just say, "Oh, well, there is nothing I can do, and the students will have to fend for themselves." I have to have a "Plan B" and so do you. What is your "Plan B" if any of these things happen to you? Think carefully and begin now to make arrangements for an alternate means of completing your assignments and meeting your obligations in the online classroom. Make sure you have a secondary method of getting online (a friend or relative's house, a local library, or an Internet cafe, etc.). In addition to having a "Plan B" for getting online, you should also keep a backup copy of ALL of your work on disk so that your assignments can be accessed on another computer if you cannot use your own for some reason.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

Learners are to treat each other and the instructor with consideration and respect. No offensive or inflammatory remarks or personal attacks will be tolerated. If you have a complaint/difference of opinion with the instructor on an issue, you are encouraged to contact the instructor via email or phone. Please do not use the discussion threads for posting messages other than that related to the content of the course and especially not to "air your differences." Inappropriate, offensive, or plagiarized postings in the class discussion threads will be copied for documentation purposes and then removed from the classroom.  A student who posts anything offensive or who posts plagiarized material will receive one warning. If the inappropriate behavior persists, a report will be sent to Online Students and an Academic Director will be contacted. A student may be removed from the online classroom for failure to follow these rules of conduct. If you have personal comments or topics to discuss with classmates, please do this in the Multicultural Cafe provided for this purpose.

Think Before You Post

There are both pros and cons to debating issues in the online classroom. One of the “cons” is the absence of visual and aural cues. It is helpful to be able to see and hear the other person because tone of voice and expression often communicate more than the text of our message. This can create misunderstandings when others read what we've written. They can take what is said in a way we did not intend. Our words may appear overly harsh or critical, or we may not take into account what effect our choice of words might have on some who read them. The advantage of this type of forum for debating issues is that we have time to both research the facts prior to responding, and we have the time to think about what we say before responding. This is a great advantage in terms of learning and also in terms of building trust in an online learning community.

This course encourages debate on issues that are controversial and sensitive to people. So often people avoid such debate and confrontation and perspectives are not shared, especially unpopular ones or those we might feel are not "politically correct." My style of teaching is more of a "Devil's Advocate" approach. I may challenge something you have written or suggest an alternative view. Sometimes students misinterpret this as my being "critical" rather than my attempt to get them to "think critically." This type of discussion can also create an "adversarial" climate if we do not take care to prevent it.

I do not want to stifle debate on the issues, but I want to remind everyone to be cognizant of how what you post concerning various issues and groups can affect others in our classroom. Below is a list of things I would like us to share to ensure that our discussion is productive and stays at an amicable level. The goal of class discussion is learning--everyone's learning. A certain environment has to exist in order for learning to take place. People need to feel safe in expressing their views without fear they will be attacked personally. Reasoned argument is encouraged, but it should not turn into personal attacks. For example, the following statements represent personal attacks:

"I can't believe you wrote something so ignorant. You obviously haven't learned anything."

"Stupid people like you are the reason there is war everywhere."

"It's obvious you don't know what you're talking about. Let me educate you."

"What is your problem?"

"Why do all you people think alike?" (This goes beyond a personal attack to attack the person as representative of an entire group)

Such statements, rather than promoting understanding and encouraging open dialogue, only antagonize the object of the remarks. It is hard to reach someone who has been antagonized. They are not open to listening to any reasonable line of argument. If the goal is to help each other learn, then another approach is necessary.
What are some things we can do to create and maintain trust in our learning community?
1. Wait before responding to something, especially if it creates an emotional reaction. Reread the posting several times before you assume you understand what is being stated. Give yourself time to reflect carefully before responding.
2. If something you read appears to be confusing, contradictory, or disturbing to you, ask for clarification: "When I read ____________, I was confused. Could you clarify what you meant by that?"
3. Focus your response or critique on the point being made by the other person and not the individual making the point:
"I see your point, and I would agree that some people are happy with the status quo. They see no reason to accept personal responsibility for social problems and may not be able to envision their role in bringing about social change. However, is this the failure of only one group? How do you think we can best educate all people to see we are "all in this together?"
4. Resist the temptation to make assumptions based on limited information. Some people are better at expressing their thoughts and ideas in writing than others. What they write is not always a true reflection of what they meant to say. That's why it is good to ask for clarification.
5. Avoid asking an individual to speak for his or her race, ethnicity, gender, etc. This assumes everyone who identifies with the race, ethnicity, gender, etc., thinks the same way. We "know" this is not the case, but we fall into this trap time and again.
6. Examine your postings for possible stereotypes or assumptions about people and their motivations for behavior. Though everyone is entitled to their opinion, one of our learning objectives should be to recognize and confront stereotypes. It is usually easier to see this in others as opposed to ourselves.
7. Before you craft a response, ask yourself, "What is it I want someone to understand and what is the most effective way to state my points to create that understanding? What is my motivation? Do I want to retaliate, prove I am right, or create understanding?
8. Keep an open mind. This is such a simple thing to say and such a difficult thing to do. We are passionate about our points and want people to understand where we are coming from. That is good as long as we don't allow it to close our minds to other points of view :-)

Thanks for making our learning environment a challenging and rewarding one! 

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:

A class week is defined as the period of time between Monday and Sunday. The first week begins the first day of the term and ends at midnight the following Sunday. The eCollege classroom is set to CT. Weekly discussion threads are timed to end at midnight CT each week. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed by Sunday Midnight CT of the week assigned. They should be posted in the classroom or placed in the appropriate Dropbox basket as directed. Please note that this means if you are in a different time zone you must figure out by what time you need to post in your own time zone in order to make the midnight CT deadline. Your initial Discussion Response should be posted by Thursday midnight CT in any given week in order to give classmates an opportunity to respond to your thoughts and ideas. Class assignments should not be emailed to the instructor. The eCollege platform eliminates the necessity of sending papers, exams, and other assignments via email. You simply place your assignment in the appropriate area of the classroom or in the designated dropbox basket for that assignment. The time you submit your assignment is noted in the classroom. It is graded there, and the grade is posted to the gradebook. You will be able to track your progress throughout the course by going to the Gradebook.

Word Processor Documents                    

Students are asked to complete their assignments in some version of MS Word. Even though the eCollege classroom can accept MS Works, Word Perfect, or other types of files, be advised that your instructor may not be able to accept them. If you do not have MS Word and your documents are not compatible, you will have to save and submit your documents as RTF files. While this may work in terms of my ability to read and grade your assignment, you may not be able to read the comments I make or view the grading rubric that accompanies your returned assignment because I use MS Word for both. If you are using MS Word 2007, please save your document in an earlier version of Word. These still need to be submitted as attachments that can be placed in the Dropbox basket or uploaded to the document sharing or discussion areas of the classroom. Students should keep electronic file copies of all assignments submitted until after the end of the term and grades have been received. NOTE: There is a time out feature for the eCollege classroom. If you are composing a response and are not moving around in the classroom, your session may time out after a period of time has gone by. When you go to submit your assignment, it may not submit and will "disappear" into cyberspace. For this reason, you should always compose and save your postings in a word processing program and then copy/paste them into the editor when you want to post them.

Computer Literacy

Students are expected to have frequent access to a PC with a modem and web browser and reliable Internet access. Computer literacy (ability to set up files, familiarity with search engines and browsing the Internet, and experience with downloading files) is expected. You are also expected to familiarize yourself with the features of the eCollege classroom by reviewing the Student Orientation Tutorial (CDL 300) made available to you on the Academics PSH Page. This is the page that lists the links to courses in which you are currently enrolled after you login at This tutorial should appear under the heading "Special Courses" at the top of that page. If you have difficulty accessing certain features of the classroom, this may be due to the existence of a firewall or other security features on your computer. If you need help using the course tools (Gradebook, Drop Box, Discussion Threads) in the eCollege classroom, you can access that help by clicking on HELP icon at the upper right corner of the Course Home Page.

Communication--Park Mail

All students are given a Park Mail email account when they register for online courses. This is an outside email account through Google Apps. Your Park Mail address is the email address the administration uses to contact you. You should make a habit of checking your Park Mail account frequently for messages from the administration and occasionally from your instructor. You should utilize a Park Mail address/account for communicating with Park administrators. You can also email your instructor through this account by using the email link in the eCollege classroom. Please remember to put your last name and ID number in the subject line of your email.

Course Announcements

Weekly reminders and other important announcements will be made in the Announcements section on the Home Page of the course (very top). Weekly announcements are posted at the beginning of each week. Other announcements may be added as necessary. Students are expected to look for new announcements each time they enter the online classroom. It is your responsibility to know the information contained in these announcements.

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty ( or Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95-96
Avoid problems of plagiarism by writing your assignments in your own words and using quotations sparingly, if at all. In this course, you are required to write the majority of your assignments in your own words. No written assignment or paper may be composed of more than 10% directly quoted or closely paraphrased material. Information from your references sources must be summarized and/or paraphrased in your own words and properly cited by using in-text citations in APA style. Those who choose to copy and paste material from their reference sources as a substitute for writing out their assignments in their own words will be given one warning and a zero on that assignment. If it happens a second time, the student will be referred to the proper Park administrator for disciplinary action.

Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: Students must participate in an academically related activity on a weekly basis in order to be marked present in an online class. Examples of academically-related activities include but are not limited to: contributing to an online discussion, completing a quiz or exam, completing an assignment, initiating contact with a faculty member to ask a course related question, or using any of the learning management system tools.

Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 98

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: .


CompetencyExceeds Expectation (3)Meets Expectation (2)Does Not Meet Expectation (1)No Evidence (0)
2, 6, 7, 8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
•  Critically, creatively and thoroughly evaluates at least 7 well-selected course materials, and develops more than 1 application or conclusion for each, as used in the assignment.  Identifies and successfully defends at least 2 strengths and weaknesses for each.  All critical evaluation is justified and supported through well-crafted reason and evidence.  Goes beyond assignment expectations in the quantity and quality of critical evaluation.
•  Justifies all arguments through the integrated application of comprehensive and detailed critical reasoning and scientific evidence.  Displays significant creativity and initiative.
•  Reflexively and creatively evaluates at least 3 strengths and 3 weakness of their own and at least 3 others' assumptions, arguments, analyses, conclusions, and applications.
•  Critically evaluates appropriate selected course materials, and at least 5 outside academic sources appropriate to the assignment and an upper division course.  Identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each major concept or position, and justifies their evaluation through reason and evidence.
•  Justifies most arguments (all but 1 or 2) through the integrated application of appropriate and sufficiently detailed critical reasoning and scientific evidence.
•  Reflexively identifies at least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of their own and at least 2 others' assumptions, arguments, analyses, conclusions, and applications.
•  Demonstrates little critical evaluation (no more than 3 or 4 attempts), or such evaluation presented is inappropriate to the assignment or topic.  Fails to offer a balanced evaluation of some concepts or positions.  Fails to consistently explain and justify their reasons or evidence for all points.
•  Justifies no more than 3 or 4 of their arguments in an appropriate manner.  Fails to integrate appropriate and sufficiently detailed critical reasoning or scientific evidence for each major point.
•  Fails to demonstrate critical reflexivity, or presents biased arguments against those positions with which they disagree or for those arguments or evidence that supports their pre-existing biases.
•  May even demonstrate critical thinking skills, but they are used in the “weak sense” and work only to support their foregone (biased) conclusions.
•  Demonstrates no critical evaluation — or makes 3 or more major, or many minor, critical errors.  Modes of evaluation are inappropriate to the assignment and level of an upper division course.  Arguments are unbalanced and demonstrably biased.
•  Fails to offer any appropriate justification for arguments.  Uses little critical reasoning or scientific evidence, none at all, or such reasons and evidence is wholly inappropriate.
•  Is not appreciably critical or reflexive, and may evidence merely seeking to confirm their pre-existing opinions without subjecting them to critical testing.
4, 7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
•  Displays particular judgment in selecting and integrating more than 5 outside academic sources (in excess of assignment requirements).
•  Integrates, compares and contrasts differing sources and perspectives without error and in creative and especially effective ways.
•  Incorporates sources from popular or mainstream media or personal experience (in addition to those above) as particularly apt illustrations of course content and other outside academic resources.
•  Draws several accurate, justified, and creative connections among multiple concepts and sources consistently at or above the level of an upper division course.
•  Correctly integrates a at least 5 outside academic sources appropriate to the assignment and to an upper division course.
•  Integrates, compares and contrasts differing sources and perspectives with no major errors and more than a few minor errors.
•  May also incorporate sources from popular or mainstream media (in addition to those above), but correctly distinguishes between scientific and non-scientific outside sources, as appropriate, and uses the latter only for illustration and not justification.
•  Draws at least 5 accurate and justified connections among multiple concepts and sources.
•  Attempts to integrate at least 4 outside academic sources, but does so with 1 major error or with several minor errors.  Or incorporates outside sources with little or no attempt at their integration or synthesis.  Or with attempts at synthesis not consistently meeting the level of an upper division course.
•  Insufficient integration, comparison or contrast of differing sources and perspectives with 1 major, or several minor, errors.  Or includes only sources on one side of an issue where there is legitimate and obvious disciplinary disagreement.
•  Evidences little, if any, discernment between academic and popular sources.
•  Draws fewer that 5 connections among concepts and sources.  May contain 1 serious error or several minor errors.
•  Little, if any, attempt to integrate outside academic sources (no more than 4 sources).  Contains more than 1 major error or many minor errors.  No significant attempt at synthesis appropriate to an upper division course.
•  No significant comparison or contrast among sources and perspectives.  May demonstrate 2 or more major errors or many minor ones.
•  Evidences no discernment between academic and popular sources.
•  Draws fewer than 5 connections among concepts and sources, and those attempts contain 2 or more major errors, or many minor ones.
1, 4, 5, 8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
•  Demonstrates exceptional command of a full range of concepts and theoretical perspectives presented in the course, with more than 5 well-developed examples.  Introduces at least 2 additional relevant findings or theoretical and conceptual distinctions.
•  Exceptional analysis of a wide range of appropriate course materials (more than 5) and outside sources (more than 2) beyond the assignment guidelines and without error.
• Presents creative and sophisticated reason, logical justification, and exceptionally high evidentiary standards consistently at or beyond the level of an upper division course.
•  Demonstrates sufficient command of appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives presented in the course, and successfully uses at least 5 course concepts.
•  Successfully analyzes at least 5 appropriately selected course materials, and least 2 outside sources, without major error.
•  Identifies and exemplifies forms of reason, justification and evidentiary standards appropriate to the level of an upper division course.
•  Demonstrates insufficient command of appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives at the level of an upper division course, insufficiently or unsuccessfully use the chosen analytic tools, or chooses inappropriate analytic tools.
•  Analysis of appropriate selected course materials contains 1 major error or several minor ones.  May not attempt significant (or any) analysis of outside materials or examples.
•  Uses some inappropriate reason, evidence or justification.
•  Fails to demonstrate any sufficient command of appropriate concepts and theoretical perspectives.  Fails to sufficiently or successfully use their chosen analytic tools.  Chooses some inappropriate analytic tools.
•  Analysis of inappropriate course materials or contains at least 2 major errors or many minor ones.  No attempt at analysis of outside materials or examples.
•  Uses inappropriate, insufficient, or unjustified reason or evidence.
2, 3, 6, 7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
•  Demonstrates and justifies exceptional command of factual course materials (more than 4 instances).  Creatively and effectively employs more than 2 salient outside examples.
•  Creatively and consistently applies course materials to 3 or more relevant personal, social, and historical examples without error.
•  Creatively, effectively, and illustrates and supports all points through well-chosen and integrated relevant examples, details, and supporting information consistently at or above the level of an upper division course.
•  Demonstrates and justifies sufficient command of factual materials presented in the course (at least 4 instances), and at least 2 outside sources.
•  Applied course materials to at least 3 appropriate personal, social, or historical examples without major error.
•  Provides adequate illustration and support of all points through salient and relevant examples, details, and supporting information at the level of an upper division course.
•  Demonstrates insufficient command of factual course materials (fewer than 4 instances).  Fails to meaningfully incorporate outside examples.  Does not consistently or adequately justify their inclusion.
•  Inappropriate or insufficient (fewer than 3) personal, social, or historical examples.  Any applications, such as there are, may contain 1 major error or several minor errors.
•  Provides inadequate illustration and support of a few key points (no more than 4) or several minor ones.  Examples, details, and supporting information is often tangential or its connection is incompletely explained and justified.
•  Fails to demonstrate meaningful command of factual course materials.  Rarely justifies their inclusion or makes serious and consistent omissions (more than 2).
•  Lacks meaningful, relevant, or significant personal, social, or historical examples, or those provided are completely inappropriate to the assignment.  May contain more than 2 major errors or many minor errors in application.
•  Provides little, if any, support for even key points.  Examples, details, and supporting information is lacking, irrelevant, or unexplained.
Content of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
4, 5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
•  Goes beyond the strictures of the assignment through the use of exceptionally precise, accurate and expressive language chosen for a well-defined audience.  May even successfully integrate the needs of multiple audiences.
•  Is exceptionally well organized, unified, focused, flowing, or has a particularly well-suited opening and closing.  Nuanced and precise control of language.
•  Presents a balanced and thoughtful treatment of controversial research or policy issues, even as it clearly communicates an advocated position.
•  Utilizes technical terminology from the course and outside reseaarch in an advanced, nuanced, and precise manner consistently at or exceeding the level of an upper division course.
•  Responds fully and completely to the assignment using appropriate, direct language and expresses its purpose clearly and persuasively for the needs of a defined audience.
•  Well-organized, unified, focused, flowing, and opens and closes effectively.
•  Presents one side of controversial research or policy issues well and completely, and makes a serious (though perhaps not completely successful) effort to communicate alternatives.
•  Correctly utilizes technical language from the course and outside research in a manner appropriate to the assignment and level of the course.
•  Fails to respond fully or completely to the assignment.  Language is sometimes inappropriate, flaccid, or confusing and does not express its purpose clearly and persuasively.  Audience is undefined or inconsistent.
•  Lacks some organization or unified argument.  May be slightly unfocused.  Has significant problem with flow or effective opening and closing passages.
•  Evidences bias or makes little effort to communicate serious alternatives.
•  Has 1 or more major, or, more than a few minor, terminological errors.
•  Falls significantly short of the assignment strictures.  Language is often inappropriate, flaccid, and confusing, and does not express a clear or persuasive purpose.  No clear sense of audience.
•  Is disorganized, disjointed, unfocused, or stilted.  Unsuccessful or lacking in its opening and closing.
•  Evidences significant bias.  Makes no effort to communicate serious alternatives or digresses into mere opinion or ideology.
• Has 2 or more major, or many minor, terminological errors.
Technical Skill in Communicating                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
1, 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
•  Has no errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
• Evidences literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills at or beyond the level of an upper division course.
•  Completely and correctly acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly and indirectly used sources.
•  No errors in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
•  Has no more than 1 major error, and no more than a few minor errors, in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
•  Evidences basic literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills appropriate to the level of an upper division course.
•  Consistently, but not completely acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly used sources.  May evidence no more than 3 minor problems with indirect attribution or a few small errors in reference format.
•  1 or a few minor errors in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
• Has 2 or more major, or more than a few minor, errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
•  Incompletely or inconsistently displays literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, and information processing skills at the level of an upper division course.  May include up to 2 major errors or a few minor ones.
•  Incompletely or inconsistently acknowledges and documents (through in text citations and an accompanying references section) all directly used sources.  May evidence 1 major problem, or a few minor problems, with indirect attribution or several errors in reference format.
•  1 major error, or a few minor errors, in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
• Has 3 or more major, or many minor, errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, structure and format.
• Has 2 or more major errors, or many minor errors, in literacy, numeracy, rhetorical, or information processing skills, or fails to demonstrate most of these at the level of an upper division course.
• Has 2 or more major errors, or many minor errors, in acknowledging and documenting citations and references.  May evidence 2 or more major problems with indirect attribution or may misattribute sources.  Reference and citation format is inconsistent or incorrect.
•  More than 2 major error, or several minor errors, in the application of relevant portions of APA format.
2, 3, 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Demonstrates ability to analyze and evaluate the social history of American inter-group relations with no significant or noticeable errors. Demonstrates ability to analyze and evaluate the social history of American inter-group relations with only a few minor and no major errors. Does not demonstrate a successful or consistent ability to analyze and evaluate the social history of American inter-group relations. Contains 1 or 2 major errors or several minor ones. Fails to demonstrate an appreciable ability to analyze and evaluate the social history of American inter-group relations. Contains more than 2 major errors and omissions, or many minor errors and omissions. 
Demonstrates ability to analyze and evaluate current issues in minority group relations with no significant or noticeable errors. Demonstrates ability to analyze and evaluate current issues in minority group relations with only a few minor and no major errors. Does not demonstrate a successful or consistent ability to analyze and evaluate current issues in minority group relations. Contains 1 or 2 major errors or several minor ones. Fails to demonstrate an appreciable ability to analyze and evaluate current issues in minority group relations. Contains more than 2 major errors and omissions, or many minor errors and omissions. 


This material is protected by copyright and can not be reused without author permission.

Last Updated:12/26/2012 3:18:43 PM