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EDC 363 Integrating the Curriculum:PreK
Wolf, Amy


Mission Statement: Park University provides access to a quality higher education experience that prepares a diverse community of learners to think critically, communicate effectively, demonstrate a global perspective and engage in lifelong learning and service to others.

School For Education Mission Statement
The School for Education at Park University, an institution committed to diversity and best practice, prepares educators to be effective school professionals, reflective change agents, and advocates for equity and excellence for all learners.



Vision Statement: Park University, a pioneering institution of higher learning since 1875, will provide leadership in quality, innovative education for a diversity of learners who will excel in their professional and personal service to the global community.

School For Education Vision Statement
The School for Education at Park University is to be known as a leader in the preparation of educators who will address the needs, challenges, and possibilities of the 21st century.

Park University School for Education  Conceptual Framework


Course

EDC 363 Integrating the Curriculum:PreK

Semester

S6T 2013 DL

Faculty

Wolf, Amy

Title

Associate Professor and Chair of Leadership and Early Childhood Education

Degrees/Certificates

Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Early Childhood Education and Sociology
M.A. Human Development and Family Studies: Emphasis Early Childhood Education, Higher Education and Administration
B.S. Human Development and Family Studies; Emphasis: Children in Group Settings

Office Location

Copley 320

Office Hours

Tuesday and Thursday 10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. or by appointment. We will plan a monthly full-class meeting after the semester begins.

Daytime Phone

816-590-8282 (mobile)

E-Mail

amy.wolf@park.edu

Semester Dates

January 14, 2013-May 10, 2013

Class Days

Please see calendar and check into the online classroom daily for updates.

Class Time

TBA

Prerequisites

Admission to the School for Education. Concurrent Enrollment in EDC 354: Observation, Assessment and Screening in ECE; EDC 355: Social/Emotional Learning in ECE; EDC 373/383: Pre-K Practicum

Credit Hours

3


Textbook:

Copple, C. and Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs, 3rd edition. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. (ISBN: 978-1-928896-64-7).
 
Hill, L., Stremmel, A., and Fu, V. (2005). Teaching as inquiry: Rethinking curriculum in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon. ((ISBN: 0-205-41264-5)
Koralek, D., ed. Spotlight on young children-Expanded 5-book curriculum set. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. (Stock No. 2800)

DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERA (BY WEEK 2)
 
Other readings will be available in the course shell.
 
Please Note: All Park University School for Education candidates seeking a degree in Education (certification and non-certification tracks), must purchase Foliotek, the School for Education’s electronic portfolio system. As purchasing and accessing Foliotek is a multi-step process, please follow these instructions: 

1.      Decide the Contract Period and fee for which you will be paying. Minimally, you must purchase a contract which extends to the year you expect to graduate, however some students purchase a contract extending one year beyond graduation. 

 Contract Period    

 Contract Fee

Per Student (Prepaid)

Cost Breakdown

Per Student, Per Year

 1 year

 $30.00

$30.00

 2 years

 $59.00

$29.50

 3 years

 $87.00

$29.00

 4 years

 $112.00

$28.00

 5 years

$120.00

$24.00

6 years

$125.00

$20.83

2.      Send an email to Carol Williams (carol.williams@park.edu) with the following information:

a.      Your Name

b.      The Contract Period you wish to purchase

c.      Your student identification number

d.  Note: Students on a non-certification early childhood track, Teaching Young Children or Early Childhood and Leadership, need to request purchase of the NAEYC portfolio).

3.      Within a few days, you will receive from Foliotek an email with online purchasing information. Upon receipt of this email, purchase your Foliotek contract.

4.      Upon receipt of your payment, you will receive your login information. You must then send a final email to Carol Williams (carol.williams@park.edu), requesting she provide your current education professors and a academic advisor (list them) access to view your portfolio. It is imperative you complete this final step.

Textbooks can be purchased through the MBS bookstore

Additional Resources:

McAfee Memorial Library - Online information, links, electronic databases and the Online catalog. Contact the library for further assistance via email or at 800-270-4347.
Career Counseling - The Career Development Center (CDC) provides services for all stages of career development.  The mission of the CDC is to provide the career planning tools to ensure a lifetime of career success.
Park Helpdesk - If you have forgotten your OPEN ID or Password, or need assistance with your PirateMail account, please email helpdesk@park.edu or call 800-927-3024
Resources for Current Students - A great place to look for all kinds of information http://www.park.edu/Current/.
Advising - Park University would like to assist you in achieving your educational goals. Please contact your Campus Center for advising or enrollment adjustment information.
Online Classroom Technical Support - For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email helpdesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). To see the technical requirements for Online courses, please visit the http://parkonline.org website, and click on the "Technical Requirements" link, and click on "BROWSER Test" to see if your system is ready.
FAQ's for Online Students - You might find the answer to your questions here.


Course Description:
EDC363 Integrating the Curriculum:Pre-K: A course designed for students to plan, implement and evaluate developmentally appropriate materials, activities and strategies in a Pre-primary settings. PreRequisite: Admission to the School for Education Concurrent enrollment in: EDC354, EDC 355, and EDC373 or EDC383 or permission of Coordinator or Chair. 3:0:3

Educational Philosophy:

The professor draws from Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, in that it is important to allow for diverse learning styles in all classrooms. Further, she believes in the fact that individuals learn through collaboration and construction of their own knowledge. In other words the professor draws heavily from theorists such as Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Bruner to name a few. The professor provides time to share personal experiences and ideas to understand multiple perspectives.

The class is organized in the style of a seminar including techniques such as: dialogue, demonstration, observation and reflection, research, collaborative group projects and presentations.  

  Instructor Learning Outcomes

  1. Articulate and apply an educationally sound philosophy of early childhood education as a basis for making professional decisions when working with children and their families. (MoSPE1.1, 2.6, 8.3; NAEYC 4b, 6b, 6c, 6d)
  2. Plan learning environments and experiences that promote play as a context for supporting development, active learning, and construction of knowledge. (MoSPE 1.2, 3.2, 4.2; NAEYC - 4c; SPED Competencies - 5)
  3. Use developmental knowledge and reflection to create healthy, respectful, supportive and challenging learning environments (from NAEYC 1c) (MoSPE 2.1, 3.2, 4.3; NAEYC – 1c, 4d; SPED Competencies - 2 & 5)
  4. Plan learning environments and experiences that promote play as a context for supporting development, active learning, and construction of knowledge. (MoSPE 1.2, 1.3, 3.2, 4.1, 4.3; NAEYC -1c, 4c, 5b; SPED Competencies - 5)
  5. Construct positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation for their work with children; especially understanding the cultural identity of each child, individuality, and special rights that makes each child unique (MoSPE 1.5, 2.4, 2.6, 3.2, 6.2; NAEYC – 1b, 2a, 4a; SPED Competencies – 7)
  6. Reflects upon teaching to promote positive outcomes for each child (MoSPE 8.1; NAEYC 4d)
  7. Understands content knowledge and resources in academic disciplines: language and literacy, the arts, mathematics, science, physical activity, physical activity, and social studies (MoSPE 1.1, 1.2; NAEYC 5a)
  8. Uses the central concepts, inquiry tools, and structures of content areas or academic discipline (MoSPE 1.3, 4.1; NAEYC 5b)
  9. Uses knowledge, appropriate early learning standards, and other resources to design, implement and evaluate developmentally meaningful and challenging curriculum for each child (MoSPE 1.4, 2.2, 3.1, 3.3; NAEYC 5c)
  10. Designs and implements experiences taking into consideration prior learning, experience, learning style, family, culture and community (MoSPE 2.6, 3.2)
Class Assessment:
Participation in class weekly discussion board. Evidence of reading assignments is evident through the application of ideas, experiences and reflection in discussion boards. Participation requires active dialogue among candidates throughout the week. Candidates are expected to respond critically with one another, monitor postings and return and respond regularly with one another. 190 Total Points (10 points for each weekly discussion board and 5 points each for both community building exercises.)
Participation in Practicum Discussion Board. Evidence of reflective thought regarding practicum experience.  60 Total Points (5 points for each discussion board).

Letter of Introduction to teachers and families of practicum (5 points)

Project 1: The Environment: As you create this project, you need to think of the physical environment as a third teacher. Although the role of the classroom teacher is important, relate the aspects of this project to the physical environment. Observe the classroom environment during center time. Describe areas that are popular with the children and reasons why they might be popular. Describe areas that are not popular and why they might not be as popular. Carefully observe a center that may relate to your content area. Your content area is the area that you are researching for your presentation. As you look at the areas build upon the interests and the knowledge base of the children in the classroom. Determine which area where you will redesign the environment. Based upon this investigation, teacher candidates will develop a plan for the environment and implement the plan for two weeks. Mentor teachers and Practicum instructor will provide feedback. In the practicum instructor is unable to visit the project in person, candidates are expected to digitally record the environment project and submit for feedback. Finally, based upon the careful observation of the children engaging in the environment and the constructive feedback obtained by the mentor teacher and practicum instructor, candidates will write a reflective analysis of the environment. (115 Points Total)

Project 2: Team Presentation and Activity/Experience Planning

As a small group (2 people) design: 1.) a class presentation on the proposed topic (creative arts, social studies, language and literacy, science, and math) and 2.) a variety of activities and learning center experiences (approximately 2-3, depending upon group size) in which classmates will participate and reflect upon. The focus of this experience is upon the pre-primary aged child. Teacher candidates will post the background information on the topic through a presentation utilizing technology (Wiki, PowerPoint, etc.). Candidates will use multiple resources including the Copple and Bredenkamp text to create the presentation. The team members will facilitate the dialogue during their presentation week. Team members need to check into the class regularly and answer questions and respond to peers. The presenters will suggest learning centers/activities based upon the content area. Each presenter must suggest one activity. The plan will emphasize the importance of play and creativity for children aged 3-5 years. Activities must be developmentally-appropriate, hands-on, accurate, relevant and meaningful for pre-primary aged children. Classmates will recreate the activity and review it based upon their perceptions of a pre-primary aged child. The activity plan must demonstrate integration into at least two additional content areas. (35 points)

Project 3a: Candidates will develop an activity plan appropriate for the pre-primary aged children in the practicum placement. Plan can encompass any content area BUT must be integrated naturally into at least two content areas. (Integrating the activity naturally does not mean adding to the activity just to measure another content area. It is easily connected to the content area within one activity.) Candidates must build upon the prior knowledge and experiences of the children creating a plan that is accurate, relevant and meaningful for the children. Plan must be tied to the Head Start Outcomes that are related to the two content areas. Candidates must plan a tool to assess the impact they had on the children’s learning describing when the natural assessment will take place during the activity. Plan must be approved by EDC 363 instructor prior to submitting to the practicum instructor and mentor teacher for approval. Mentor teacher and practicum instructor must approve on due date prior to implementation.
 
3b. Implement activity. When implementing the activity, digitally record self teaching. (If your practicum instructor was not present during implementation, candidates must submit recording to instructor for feedback.) Provide practicum instructor and mentor teacher with evaluation forms prior to implementation.
 
3c. Post digital recording on the Discussion board for Peer Feedback. Along with the peer feedback and mentors’ feedback, review the recording using the outlined questions to help self-reflect and self-evaluate teaching. Also include a description of the theoretical orientation and how it relates to the activity. In other words, how did the way you teach and the experience you gave the children relate to constructivist/social constructivist theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky, Dewey, or Bruner, etc. (Make sure that you cite references.)
TOTAL POINTS: 75 points

Project 4 (CORE ASSESSMENT): 

Expanded Activity with Documentation

Teacher candidates will design and implement an activity for children in pre-primary classroom. The activity must include: integrated teaching, anti-biased strategies, form of technology with children, assessment before, during and after the activity, connection to families and individual adaptations. The activity must be unique to this class and be based upon Constructivist/Social Constructivist Theory. Through this activity teacher candidates must be able to document how children think about the world around them. (This is a research project…as a teacher researcher, you are to consider what you learn from the children). The activity should have a problem in which the children overcome. Through this activity, teacher candidates should be able to document how children think about the world. Connect to the Head Start Outcomes http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/eecd/Assessment/Child%20Outcomes/HS_Revised_Child_Outcomes_Framework.pdf 

Teacher candidates should work with the mentor teacher in order to develop ideas for the plans.

Submit entire plan to professor feedback prior to providing practicum instructor and mentor teacher with copies. No plans may be implemented until you have received written feedback.

Revise plan and submit to the practicum instructor and mentor teacher for feedback. If a teacher candidate implements a plan without feedback from both parties, they will not receive a score for that activity.

Upon feedback from the professor and mentor teacher, facilitate the activity with the children. While teaching the activity, make sure to document the research question. Documentation must be collected by the candidate. If practicum instructor was unable to view the activity facilitation in person, candidates must digitally record the activity and submit for instructor feedback. When planning an experience for children teacher candidates must take into consideration a pre-assessment of the children. Teacher candidates must understand their prior knowledge and experiences. In order to consider these steps for effective planning:

Listen to the children and ask open-ended questions.

Talk with mentor teacher about their curriculum and observations.

Evaluate what you have observed.

Plan your experience (following the format on the next page).

Obtain feedback from professor and mentor teacher.

Implement plan. Listen to children and ask divergent thinking questions. OBSERVE.

Assess the children’s learning throughout the experience and your learning.

Reflect upon the experience.
Total Points: 80

Project 5

Personal Philosophy Statement-PRE-PRIMARY:

Teacher Candidates will begin this process by using adjectives to describe Children, Families and Teachers. The list of adjectives becomes your image of the child, teacher and family. It is important to understand that the way we describe people affect the way that we work with them. Use these images to help you define your philosophy.

Teacher candidates will write a personal philosophy statement for pre-primary aged education. Supporting documentation include: image of the child, image of the teacher, image of the family, theories that support views on children, teaching and family involvement, and journals written in practicum piece. Citing references, especially when addressing theory, is necessary TOTAL POINTS 28
PROCTORED FINAL EXAM In preparation for the culminating portfolio,candidates will write the first draft of the essay addressing the professional standards relevant to your degree program. Choose one project completed in EDC 363 to use as a portfolio artifact. Review the MoSPE Quality Indicators (for those seeking Missouri Teacher Certification) OR NAEYC Key Elements (for those seeking ECE-TYC or ECEL degrees). Complete the Portfolio Template as provided. 30 points

Dispositions are continually measured in education courses. Please make sure to review the criteria.

Grading:
A project packet, which includes all scoring guides and complete descriptions of assignments, will be located in document sharing.

Grading Scale

90-100% A

80-89%   B

70-79%   C

60-69%   D

0-59%     F

Late Submission of Course Materials:
Teacher candidates must follow the criteria outlined and abide by the due dates for each project. Late submissions are accepted only with prior approval from the professor. Twenty percent of the total points (for the project) may be deducted if the professor accepts the paper as a late submission. It is the teacher candidate’s responsibility to contact the professor prior to due date if he/she does not understand the criteria for the assignments as explained.

Classroom Rules of Conduct:

Reading/Class Participation Teacher candidates are required to read the textbook chapters in order to participate in class discussion boards. Candidates are expected to engage in dialogue through the discussion boards versus simple regurgitation of information and/or relying strictly upon personal opinion. Within the course format, candidates are expected to respond critically to question sets and one another. Further, candidates must monitor all postings and return regularly to the discussion boards in order to respond to postings from others. Small group work includes dialogue and problem solving throughout the semester. Individual teacher candidates can receive partial points for class participation and discussion boards. The class projects are based on contents covered in the text and class dialogue.

Writing Assignments Scoring guides that include format for written assignments are provided for the course. Teacher candidates should attend the writing center to ensure that papers do not bear any technical writing and typological errors. Teacher candidates must cite references using APA style within the contents of the paper. Teacher candidates should write papers in order to explain all information (assume that the reader does not understand the information presented). This form of writing will enable the students to explain their ideas and understanding of content to the professor. Furthermore, this form will better enable students to explain ideas to family members of children with whom they will work in the future. All written papers should be saved for the purpose of revision. Teacher candidates are allowed to make one revision for each written project if the grade is less than ninety percent and submitted on time. The due date for the revised papers is one week after they have been returned to students.

Visiting Programs When visiting programs or schools for observations it is essential that teacher candidates always remember that they are representatives of Park University. Professional dress and behaviors are required during all observations. Candidates must review the protocols and practicum manual for visiting programs, sign and return to professor prior to observing.

Course Topic/Dates/Assignments:
 

Week

Topic

DUE THIS WEEK

Readings for the week

Week 1

Discussion Board:

       Community Building

       The invitation to life: The art of teaching; How you teach is who you are

        Presentation team formation (Project 2)

       Introduction to Practicum

       Sign up for team

       Letter of introduction

       Chapters 1 and 2 Hill, Stremmel and Fu.

Week 2

 

Discussion Board:

·      Creating an environment for children to be known and valued: Educational caring spaces 

·      Community Building: TV Commercial

·      Practicum Discussion Board: Questions before beginning.

 

Work with team on presentation

       Create “TV Commercial"

· Chapter 6 Hill, Stremmel, Fu

· View Boulder Journey School Environment

· View NAREA Materials CD

·      Considerations for Creating Amiable Environments

· Watch TV for commercials!

Week 3

First Day of Practicum

Discussion Board

·      The teacher as researcher: Asking questions, discovering answers

·      Practicum Discussion Board

       Ideas for Project 1 a: Environment Project Plan

       Project 2 for instructor feedback

·      Chapter 3 Hill, Stremmel, Fu

·      The thought that sustains education by Carla Rinaldi (under doc sharing week 3)

Week 4

Discussion Board

·      Peer Review of Environment Project

·      Practicum Discussion Board

       Project 1a: The Environment Project Plan

       Review 3 Plans for Environment

Week 5

Discussion Board:

·      The child as cultural invention: Reconstructing images of the child

·      Practicum Discussion Board

·      Project 1b: Practicum mentors evaluation of Plan for environment

       Chapter 5 Hill, Stremmel, Fu

       Helping children ask good questions by George Foreman


Week
Topic
DUE THIS WEEK
Readings for this Week
Week 6
Discussions:
       Project 2: Group Presentation: Language and Literacy
       Practicum Discussion Board
       Begin Project 1c: Implementation of the Environment for 2 Weeks
       Provide Mentor teacher and Practicum Instructor with Project 1c: Evaluation forms
       Language and Literacy Presentation
       Copple and Bredenkamp chapters 4 and 5
Week 7
Discussion:
·      Project 2: Group Presentations: Math and Science
·      Practicum Discussion Board
       Continue Implementation of Project 1c: Implementation of Environment. Make appropriate changes
       Math Presentation
       Science Presentation
       Copple and Bredenkamp chapters 4 and 5
Week 8
Discussion:
·      Project 2: Group Presentations: Creative Arts and Social Studies
·      Practicum Discussion Board
 
       Project 1c: Mentor and Practicum Evaluations of Environment
       Project 1d: Reflection of Environment
       Creative Arts Presentation
       Social Studies Presentation
       Copple and Bredenkamp chapters 4 and 5
SPRING BREAK
 
 

Week

Topic

DUE THIS WEEK

Readings for this week

Week 9

Discussion:

·      Negotiating the Curriculum: ‘The long story’ Projects as a key to community building

·      Practicum Discussion Board:  Peer Review of Project 3a: Mini Activity Plan

·   Project 3a: Mini Activity Plan Approved by Practicum Mentors (can use plan from proctored final)

·   Hill, Stremmel and Fu: Read Chapters 9 & 11 (Hill, Stremmel, Fu)

·   Part 1 of Fire Truck Video

·   Helping Children ask good questions.

·   Activity Plans (Project 3)

Week 10

Discussion:

·      The use of documentation in an inquiry-based classroom

·      Practicum Discussion Board

 

    Project 3b: Implement Mini Activity Plan Video Tape teaching

    Hill Stremmel and Fu: Read Chapter 10 (Hill, Stremmel, Fu) and excerpts from Making Learning Visible.

    Part 2 of Fire Truck Video

Week 11

Discussion

·   Discussion Board Peer Review of Teaching – 3c

·      Practicum Discussion: Peer Review of Project 4a: Expanded Activity with Documentation

·   Project 4a: Expanded Activity with Documentation Plan

·   Video of teaching

·   Activity Plans (Project 4)

Week 12

Discussion

·      Applying State Standards: Project Approach

·      Discussion Board Practicum

·   Project 3b: Mentor and Practicum Teacher Evaluations of Implementation of Project 3.

·   Project 3c: Video reflection of Mini Activity Plan

Read Article: http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/schuler.html

And http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/earlyLearningStandards.pdf 

Week 13

Discussion

·   A family-centered model: Parent-teacher partnerships; The amiable school: Incorporating everyone into the equation

·   Discussion Board Practicum.

·   Project 4b: Implement Expanded Activity Plan with Documentation in Practicum-Take photos for panel: Keep in Mind Declaration of Intent. Provide mentor and instructor with evaluations

·   Project 4b: Mentor and Practicum Instructor evaluations of Project 4: Expanded activity with documentation.

    Hill, Stremmel, Fu 7 & 8


Week

Topic

DUE THIS WEEK

Readings for the week

Week 14

Virtual meetings Appointments made with Instructor to prepare panel. Send digital photo book, initial ideas and activity plan (including declaration of intent) through discussion board.

Project 5: Philosophy of Pre-primary Education, Image of Child, Image of Teacher, Image of Family

Week 15

Dialogue: Code of Ethics: Application to experiences

 

.

 

    Read: The NAEYC Code of Ethics: http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf

Week 16

Final Celebration: Peer Review Documentation Panels

Documentation Panel

Proctored Final Exam

·   Documentation Panels

Academic Honesty:
Academic integrity is the foundation of the academic community. Because each student has the primary responsibility for being academically honest, students are advised to read and understand all sections of this policy relating to standards of conduct and academic life. Park University students and faculty members are encouraged to take advantage of the University resources available for learning about academic honesty (www.park.edu/current or http://www.park.edu/faculty/).from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95-96

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism involves the use of quotations without quotation marks, the use of quotations without indication of the source, the use of another's idea without acknowledging the source, the submission of a paper, laboratory report, project, or class assignment (any portion of such) prepared by another person, or incorrect paraphrasing. from Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 95

Attendance Policy:
Instructors are required to maintain attendance records and to report absences via the online attendance reporting system.

  1. The instructor may excuse absences for valid reasons, but missed work must be made up within the semester/term of enrollment.
  2. Work missed through unexcused absences must also be made up within the semester/term of enrollment, but unexcused absences may carry further penalties.
  3. In the event of two consecutive weeks of unexcused absences in a semester/term of enrollment, the student will be administratively withdrawn, resulting in a grade of "F".
  4. A "Contract for Incomplete" will not be issued to a student who has unexcused or excessive absences recorded for a course.
  5. Students receiving Military Tuition Assistance or Veterans Administration educational benefits must not exceed three unexcused absences in the semester/term of enrollment. Excessive absences will be reported to the appropriate agency and may result in a monetary penalty to the student.
  6. Report of a "F" grade (attendance or academic) resulting from excessive absence for those students who are receiving financial assistance from agencies not mentioned in item 5 above will be reported to the appropriate agency.
ONLINE NOTE: Students must participate in an academically related activity on a weekly basis in order to be marked present in an online class. Examples of academically-related activities include but are not limited to: contributing to an online discussion, completing a quiz or exam, completing an assignment, initiating contact with a faculty member to ask a course related question, or using any of the learning management system tools.

Park University 2011-2012 Undergraduate Catalog Page 98

Disability Guidelines:
Park University is committed to meeting the needs of all students that meet the criteria for special assistance. These guidelines are designed to supply directions to students concerning the information necessary to accomplish this goal. It is Park University's policy to comply fully with federal and state law, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regarding students with disabilities. In the case of any inconsistency between these guidelines and federal and/or state law, the provisions of the law will apply. Additional information concerning Park University's policies and procedures related to disability can be found on the Park University web page: http://www.park.edu/disability .

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Last Updated:12/28/2012 4:46:41 PM